The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired, converted into intelligence, и made available to policymakers. Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, или wrong. Intelligence is information that has been collected, integrated, evaluated, analyzed, и interpreted. Finished intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the policymaker.
The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, и estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental и factual reference material on a country или issue. Current intelligence reports on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes. The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence continually updates the inventory of knowledge; и estimative intelligence revises overall interpretations of country и issue prospects for guidance of basic и current intelligence. The Мир Factbook , The Президент's Daily Brief , и the National Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.
The США has carried on foreign intelligence activities since the days of George Washington but only since Мир War II have they been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs have highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since that time: (1 ) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2 ) the National Intelligence Survey ( NIS ), и (3) The Мир Factbook .
During Мир War II, intelligence consumers realized that the production of basic intelligence by different components of the US Правление resulted in a great duplication of effort и conflicting information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home to leaders in Congress и the executive branch the need for integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed и coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as Германия и Япония , but also on places of little previous interest. In the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy и Marines had to launch amphibious operations against many islands about which information was unconfirmed или nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the США should never again be caught unprepared.
In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of Naval Intelligence - ONI), и Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the Office of Strategic Services - OSS ) decided that a joint effort should be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, и publish the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Правление for an authoritative и coordinated appraisal of strategic basic intelligence. Between April 1943 и July 1947, the board published 34 JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, и numerous letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm. Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Тихий океан Areas, which said, "JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based planners."
The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than in war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities - not just the enemy и his war production."
The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 и officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized the National Intelligence Survey ( NIS ) program as a peacetime replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more comprehensive gazetteers и better maps. The US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced the gazetteers; и CIA produced the maps.
The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the structure и administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955 that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all areas of the world. There will always be a continuing requirement for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was created as an annual summary и update to the encyclopedic NIS studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, и the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook , map, и gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Правление Printing Office (GPO). The Factbook was first made available on the Интернет in June 1997. The year 2008 marks the 61st anniversary of the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency и the 65th year of continuous basic intelligence support to the US Правление by The Мир Factbook и its two predecessor programs.
The Evolution of The Мир Factbook
National Basic Intelligence Factbook produced semiannually until 1980. Страна entries include sections on Land, Water, Люди, Правление, Экономика, Связь, и Defense Forces.
1981 – Publication becomes an annual product и is renamed The Мир Factbook. A total of 165 nations are covered on 225 pages.
1983 – Appendices (Conversion Factors, Международные Organizations) first introduced.
1984 – Appendices expanded; now include: A. The United Nations, B. Selected United Nations Organizations, C. Selected Международные Organizations, D. Страна Membership in Selected Organizations, E. Conversion Factors.
1987 – A new География section replaces the former separate Land и Water sections. UN Organizations и Selected Международные Organizations appendices merged into a new Международные Organizations appendix. First multi-color-cover Factbook.
1988 – More than 40 new geographic entities added to provide complete world coverage without overlap или omission. Among the new entities are Антарктика, oceans (Arctic, Atlantic , Indian, Pacific), и the Мир. The front-of-the-book explanatory introduction expanded и retitled to Notes, Definitions, и Аббревиатуры. Two new Appendices added: Единицы измерений (in place of Conversion Factors) и a Перекресный список Географических Названий. Factbook size reaches 300 pages.
1989 – Экономика section completely revised и now включая an Overview briefly describing a country's economy. New entries added under Люди, Правление, и Связь.
1990 – The Правление section revised и considerably expanded with new entries.
1991 – A new Международные организации и группы appendix added. Factbook size reaches 405 pages.
1992 – Twenty new successor state entries replace those of the Soviet Union и Yugoslavia . New countries are respectively: Армения , Азербайджан , Беларусь , Эстония , Грузия , Казахстан , Киргизия , Латвия , Литва , Молдавия , Россия , Таджикистан , Туркменистан , Украина , Узбекистан ; и Bosnia и Hercegovina , Хорватия , Македония , Сербия и Монтенегро , Словения . Number of nations in the Factbook rises to 188.
1993 – Czechoslovakia 's split necessitates new Чешская республика и Словакия entries. New Эритрея entry added после it secedes from Эфиопия . Substantial enhancements made to География section.
1994 – Two new appendices address Международные соглашения по окружающей среде. The gross domestic product (GDP) of most developing countries changed to a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than an exchange rate basis. Factbook size up to 512 pages.
1995 – The GDP of all countries now presented on a PPP basis. New appendix lists estimates от ВВП on an exchange rate basis. Связь category split; Railroads, Протяженность автомобильных дорог, Inland waterways, Протяженность трубопроводов, Число судов торгового флота, общий грузооборот, распределение по типам судов, и Число аэропортов entries now make up a new Транспортное сообщение category. The Мир Factbook is first produced on CD-ROM.
1996 – Maps accompanying each entry now present more detail. Flags also introduced for nearly all entities. Various new entries appear under География и Связь. Factbook abbreviations consolidated into a new Приложения A. Two new appendices present a Список кодов стран и a Cross-Reference List of Hydrogeographic Data Codes. Geographic coordinates added to Приложения H, Перекресный список Географических Названий. Factbook size expands by 95 pages in один year to reach 652.
1997 – A special edition for the CIA's 50 th anniversary. A schema или Guide to Страна Profiles introduced. New color maps и flags now accompany each country profile. Category headings distinguished by shaded backgrounds. Number of categories expanded to nine – the current number – with the addition of an На главную (for only a few countries) и Транснациональные вопросы (which включая Disputes-international и Транзит наркотиков). The Мир Factbook introduced onto the Интернет.
1998 – The На главную category with two entries, Current issues и Historical perspective, expanded to more countries. Last year for the production of CD-ROM versions of the Factbook.
1999 – Historical perspective и Current issues entries in the На главную category combined into a new Background statement. Several new Экономика entries introduced. A new physical map of the world added to the back-of-the-book reference maps.
2000 – A new “country profile” added on the Южный океан. The Background statements dramatically expanded to over 200 countries и possessions. A number of new Связь entries added.
2001 – Background entries completed for all 267 entities in the Factbook. Several new HIV/AIDS entries introduced under the Люди category. Revision begun on individual country maps to include elevation extremes и a partial geographic grid. Единицы измерений appendix deleted.
2002 – New entry on Distribution of Family income – Gini index added. Revision of individual country maps continued (process still ongoing).
2003 – In the Экономика category, нефть entries added for нефть production, consumption, exports, imports, и proved reserves, as well as природный газ proved reserves.
2004 – Additional нефть entries included for природный газ production, consumption, exports, и imports. In the Транспортное сообщение category, under Число судов торгового флота, общий грузооборот, распределение по типам судов, subfields added for foreign-owned vessels и those registered in other countries. Descriptions of the many forms of government mentioned in the Factbook incorporated into the Notes и Definitions.
2005 – In the Люди category, a Major infectious diseases field added for countries deemed to pose a higher risk for travelers. In the Экономика category, entries included for Current account balance, Investment, Public debt, и Reserves of foreign exchange и золото. The Transnational issues category expanded to include Refugees и internally displaced persons. Category headings receive distinctive colored backgrounds. These distinguishing colors are used in both the printed и online versions of the Factbook. Size of the printed Factbook reaches 702 pages.
2006 – In the Экономика category, national GDP figures now presented at Official Exchange Rates (OER) in addition to GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP).
2007 – In the Правление category, the Capital entry significantly expanded with up to four subfields, including new information having to do with time. The subfields consist of the name of the capital itself, its geographic coordinates , the time difference at the capital from coordinated universal time (UTC), и, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note is added to highlight those countries with multiple time zones. A Trafficking in persons entry added to the Transnational issues category. A new appendix, Единицы измерений, (re)introduced to the online version of the Factbook.
2008 – In the География category, two fields focus on the increasingly vital resource of вода Total renewable water resources и Freshwater withdrawal. In the Экономика category, three fields added for: Stock of direct foreign investment – at home, Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad, и Market value of publicly traded shares. Concise descriptions of the major religions mentioned in the Factbook included in the Notes и Definitions.