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Environment - current issues
Афганистан limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel и building materials); desertification; air и water pollution
Akrotiri shooting around the соль lake; note - breeding place for loggerhead и green turtles; only remaining colony of griffon vultures is on the base
Албания deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial и domestic effluents
Алжир soil erosion from overgrazing и other poor фермерство practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, нефть refining wastes, и other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers и coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from нефть wastes, soil erosion, и fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Американское Самоа limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few лет to improve water catchments и pipelines
Андорра deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment и solid waste disposal
Ангола overuse of pastures и subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical леса и to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution и siltation of rivers и dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Ангилья supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
Антарктика in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 миллионов квадратные километры; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light passing through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an Antarctic рыба lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm один-celled Antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming
Антигуа и Барбуда water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Артический океан endangered marine species include walruses и whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change и slow to recover from disruptions или damage; thinning polar icepack
Аргентина environmental problems (urban и rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, и water pollution
примечание: Аргентина is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse газ targets
Армения soil pollution from toxic химическая промышленность such as DDT; the энергия crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) и Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone
Аруба нет
Острова Ашмор и Картье нет
Атлантический океан endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, и whales; drift net рыболовство is hastening the decline of рыба stocks и contributing to international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Бразилия, и eastern Аргентина; нефть pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf Мексики, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, и Северный Sea; industrial waste и municipal sewage pollution in Балтийское море, Северный Sea, и Mediterranean Sea
Австралия soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, и poor фермерство practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal и plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping и its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources
Австрия some forest degradation caused by air и soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural химическая промышленность; air pollution results from emissions by каменный уголь- и нефть-fired power stations и industrial plants и from trucks transiting Австрия between northern и southern Europe
Азербайджан local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku и Sumqayit) и the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, и water pollution; soil pollution results from нефть spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, и from toxic defoliants used in the production of хлопок
Багамские Острова, The coral reef decay; solid waste disposal
Бахрейн desertification resulting from the degradation of limited пахотные земли, periods of drought, и dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, и sea vegetation) resulting from нефть spills и other discharges from large tankers, нефть refineries, и distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater и seawater are the only sources for all water needs)
Бангладеш many people are landless и forced to live on и cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of рыболовство areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern и central parts of the country; soil degradation и erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Барбадос pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers
Беларусь soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Украина
Бельгия the environment is exposed to intense pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense транспорт network, industry, extensive animal breeding и crop cultivation; air и water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries; uncertainties regarding federal и regional responsibilities (now resolved) had slowed progress in tackling environmental challenges
Белиз deforestation; water pollution from sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid и sewage waste disposal
Бенин inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
Бермуды sustainable development
Бутан soil erosion; limited access to potable water
Боливия the clearing of land for agricultural purposes и the international demand for tropical леса are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing и poor cultivation methods (including slash-и-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking и irrigation
Босния и Герцеговина air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages и destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation
Ботсвана overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Остров Буве нет
Бразилия deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat и endangers a multitude of plant и animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air и water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, и several other large cities; land degradation и water pollution caused by improper добыча полезных ископаемых activities; wetland degradation; severe нефть spills
Британская территория в Индийском океане нет
Британские Виргинские острова limited natural fresh water resources (except for a few seasonal streams и springs on Tortola, most of the islands' water supply comes from wells и rainwater catchments)
Бруней seasonal smoke/haze resulting from лесные пожары in Индонeзия
Болгария air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution и resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants и industrial wastes
Буркина Фасо recent засухи и desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, и the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
Мьянма deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, и water; inadequate sanitation и water treatment contribute to disease
Бурунди soil erosion as a result of overgrazing и the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Камбоджа illegal logging activities throughout the country и strip добыча полезных ископаемых for gems in the western region along the border with Таиланд have resulted in habitat loss и declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining рыба stocks because of illegal рыболовство и overfishing
Камерун waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
Канада air pollution и resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes и damaging forests; metal smelting, каменный уголь-burning utilities, и vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural и forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, добыча полезных ископаемых, и лесоводство activities
Кабо-Верде soil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel; water shortages; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds и reptiles; illegal beach sand добывающая промышленность; overfishing
Каймановы Острoва no natural fresh water resources; drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchments
Центральноафриканская Республика tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished the country's reputation as один of the last great wildlife refuges; desertification; deforestation
Чад inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil и water pollution; desertification
Чили widespread deforestation и добыча полезных ископаемых threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial и vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
Китай air pollution (greenhouse gases, сера dioxide particulates) from reliance on каменный уголь produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the север; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of один-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion и economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
Рождества Остров loss of rainforest; impact of phosphate добыча полезных ископаемых
Клипертон, Остров нет
Кокосовые Острова fresh water resources are limited to rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs
Колумбия deforestation; soil и water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Коморские Острова soil degradation и erosion results from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
Congo, Democratic Республика the poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; беженцы responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, и wildlife poaching; добыча полезных ископаемых of minerals (coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors, алмазы, и золото) causing environmental damage
Congo, Республика the air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable; deforestation
Острова Кука нет
Коралловые Острова no permanent fresh water resources
Коста-Рика deforestation и land use change, largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching и agriculture; soil erosion; coastal marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air pollution
Кот-д’Ивуар deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage и industrial и agricultural effluents
Хорватия air pollution (from metallurgical plants) и resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial и domestic waste; landmine removal и reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Куба air и water pollution; biodiversity loss; deforestation
Кипр water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the север); water pollution from sewage и industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
Чешская республика air и water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia и in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Дания air pollution, principally from vehicle и power plant emissions; nitrogen и phosphorus pollution of the Северный Sea; drinking и surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes и pesticides
Dhekelia netting и trapping of small migrant songbirds in the spring и autumn
Джибути inadequate supplies of potable water; limited пахотные земли; desertification; endangered species
Доминика нет
Доминиканская республика water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation
Эквадор deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from нефть production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin и Galapagos Islands
Египет agricultural land being lost to urbanization и windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; нефть pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, и marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, и industrial effluents; limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile и natural resources
Сальвадор deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
Экваториальная Гвинея tap water is not potable; deforestation
Эритрея deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
Эстония air polluted with сера dioxide from нефть-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was один-20th the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Эстония has more than 1,400 natural и manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Эфиопия deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive фермерство и poor management
Европейское сообщество нет
Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова overfishing by unlicensed vessels is a problem; reindeer were introduced to the islands in 2001 for commercial reasons; this is the only commercial reindeer herd in the world unaffected by the 1986 Chornobyl disaster
Фарерские Острова нет
Фиджи deforestation; soil erosion
Финляндия air pollution from обрабатывающая промышленность и power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural химическая промышленность; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Франция some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial и vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Французская Полинезия нет
Французские Южные и Антарктические Территории introduction of foreign species on Iles Crozet has caused severe damage to the original ecosystem; overfishing of Patagonian Toothfish around Iles Crozet и Iles Kerguelen
Габон deforestation; poaching
Гамбия deforestation; desertification; water-borne diseases prevalent
Сектор Газa desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage treatment; water-borne disease; soil degradation; depletion и contamination of underground water resources
Грузия air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River и the Черное море; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic химическая промышленность
Германия emissions from каменный уголь-burning utilities и industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from сера dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Балтийское море from raw sewage и industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Германия; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 лет; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, и Habitat directive
Гана recurrent drought in север severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching и habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete или natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) и adequate desalination plant
Греция air pollution; water pollution
Гренландия protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling и seal hunting
Гренада нет
Гуам extirpation of native bird population by the rapid proliferation of the brown tree snake, an exotic, invasive species
Гватемала deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
Гернси: коронная земля Великобритании нет
Гвинея deforestation; inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification; soil contamination и erosion; overfishing, overpopulation in forest region; poor добыча полезных ископаемых practices have led to environmental damage
Гвинея-Бисау deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
Гвиана water pollution from sewage и agricultural и industrial химическая промышленность; deforestation
Гаити extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture и used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
Острова Хэрда и МакДональда нет
Ватикан нет
Гондурас urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging и the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation и soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development и improper land use practices such as фермерство of marginal lands; добыча полезных ископаемых activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers и streams, with heavy metals
Гонконг air и water pollution from rapid urbanization
Венгрия the upgrading Венгрии's standards in waste management, энергия efficiency, и air, soil, и water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Исландия water pollution from fertilizer runoff; inadequate wastewater treatment
Индия deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents и vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage и runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge и growing population is overstraining natural resources
Индийский океан endangered marine species include the dugong, seals, turtles, и whales; нефть pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, и Red Sea
Индонeзия deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke и haze from лесные пожары
Иран air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, и industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; нефть pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage и industrial waste; urbanization
Ирак government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas восток of An Nasiriyah by drying up или diverting the feeder streams и rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas for thousands of лет, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris и Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Турция; air и water pollution; soil degradation (salination) и erosion; desertification
Ирландия water pollution, especially of lakes, from agricultural runoff
Остров Мэн waste disposal (both household и industrial); transboundary air pollution
Израиль limited пахотные земли и natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial и vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial и domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, и pesticides
Италия air pollution from industrial emissions such as сера dioxide; coastal и inland rivers polluted from industrial и agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment и disposal facilities
Ямайка heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, и нефть spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions
Ян-Майен нет
Япония air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain; acidification of lakes и reservoirs degrading water quality и threatening aquatic life; Япония is один of the largest consumers of рыба и tropical леса, contributing to the depletion of these resources in Азия и elsewhere
Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании нет
Иордания limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Казахстан radioactive или toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries и test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans и animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up и leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides и natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind и blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural химическая промышленность и salination from poor infrastructure и wasteful irrigation practices
Кения water pollution from urban и industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides и fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Кирибати heavy pollution in lagoon of юг Tarawa atoll due to heavy migration mixed with traditional practices such as lagoon latrines и open-pit dumping; ground water at risk
Северная Корея water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; waterborne disease; deforestation; soil erosion и degradation
Южная Корея air pollution in large cities; acid rain; water pollution from the discharge of sewage и industrial effluents; drift net рыболовство
Кювейт limited natural fresh water resources; some of world's largest и most sophisticated desalination facilities provide much of the water; air и water pollution; desertification
Киргизия water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams и wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Лаоc unexploded ordnance; deforestation; soil erosion; most of the population does not have access to potable water
Латвия Латвия's environment has benefited from a shift to service industries после the country regained independence; the main environmental priorities are improvement of drinking water quality и sewage system, household, и hazardous waste management, as well as reduction of air pollution; in 2001, Латвия closed the EU accession negotiation chapter on environment committing to full enforcement of EU environmental directives by 2010
Ливан deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic и the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage и нефть spills
Лесото population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, и soil exhaustion; desertification; Highlands Water Project controls, stores, и redirects water to Южно-Африканская Республика
Либерия tropical rain forest deforestation; soil erosion; loss of biodiversity; pollution of coastal waters from нефть residue и raw sewage
Либия desertification; limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
Лихтенштейн нет
Литва contamination of soil и groundwater with нефтяные продукты и химическая промышленность at military bases
Люксембург air и water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Macau нет
Македония air pollution from metallurgical plants
Мадагаскар soil erosion results from deforestation и overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage и other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora и fauna unique to the island
Малави deforestation; land degradation; water pollution from agricultural runoff, sewage, industrial wastes; siltation of spawning grounds endangers рыба populations
Малазия air pollution from industrial и vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian лесные пожары
Мальдивы depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; global warming и sea level rise; coral reef bleaching
Мали deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Мальта limited natural fresh water resources; increasing reliance on desalination
Маршалловы Острова inadequate supplies of potable water; pollution of Majuro lagoon from household waste и discharges from рыболовство vessels
Мавритания overgrazing, deforestation, и soil erosion aggravated by drought are contributing to desertification; limited natural fresh water resources away from the Сенегал , which is the only perennial river; locust infestation
Маврикий water pollution, degradation of coral reefs
Майотта: заморская территория Франции нет
Мексика scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural fresh water resources scarce и polluted in север, inaccessible и poor quality in center и extreme southeast; raw sewage и industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air и water pollution in the national capital и urban centers along US-Мексика border; land subsidence in Valley Мексики caused by groundwater depletion
примечание: the government considers the lack of clean water и deforestation national security issues
Микронезия overfishing, climate change, pollution
Молдавия heavy use of agricultural химическая промышленность, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil и groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor фермерство methods
Монако нет
Монголия limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization и industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft каменный уголь in power plants и the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, и the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind и rain; desertification и добыча полезных ископаемых activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Монтенегро pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation
Мороккo land degradation/desertification (soil erosion resulting from фермерство of marginal areas, overgrazing, destruction of vegetation); water supplies contaminated by raw sewage; siltation of reservoirs; нефть pollution of coastal waters
Мозамбик a long civil war и recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban и coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface и coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Намибия limited natural fresh water resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas
Науру limited natural fresh water resources, roof storage tanks collect rainwater, but mostly dependent on a single, aging desalination plant; intensive phosphate добыча полезных ископаемых during the past 90 лет - mainly by a Великобритания, Австралия, и NZ consortium - has left the central 90% Науру a wasteland и threatens limited remaining land resources
Остров Навасса нет
Непал deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel и lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human и animal wastes, agricultural runoff, и industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
Нидерланды water pollution in the form of heavy metals, organic compounds, и nutrients such as nitrates и фосфат; air pollution from vehicles и refining activities; acid rain
Нидерландские Антильские о-ва нет
Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции erosion caused by добыча полезных ископаемых exploitation и лесные пожары
Новая Зеландия deforestation; soil erosion; native flora и fauna hard-hit by invasive species
Никарагуа deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution
Нигер overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, и lion) threatened because of poaching и habitat destruction
Нигерия soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air и water pollution; desertification; нефть pollution - water, air, и soil; has suffered serious damage from нефть spills; loss of пахотные земли; rapid urbanization
Ниуэ increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash и burn agriculture
Норфолк нет
Северные Марианские острова contamination of groundwater on Saipan may contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of endangered species conflicts with development
Норвегия water pollution; acid rain damaging forests и adversely affecting lakes, threatening рыба stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Оман rising soil salinity; beach pollution from нефть spills; limited natural fresh water resources
Тихий океан endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, и whales; нефть pollution in Philippine Sea и South Китай Sea
Пакистан water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, и agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Палау inadequate facilities for disposal of solid waste; threats to the marine ecosystem from sand и coral dredging, illegal рыболовство practices, и overfishing
Панама water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation и soil erosion threatens siltation Панамы Canal; air pollution in urban areas; добыча полезных ископаемых threatens natural resources
Папуа — Новая Гвинея rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical леса; pollution from добыча полезных ископаемых projects; severe drought
Парасельские острова нет
Парагвай deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal pose health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands
Перу deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa и sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers и coastal waters from municipal и добыча полезных ископаемых wastes
Филиппины uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air и water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important рыба breeding grounds
Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании deforestation (only a small portion of the original forest remains because of burning и clearing for settlement)
Польша situation has improved since 1989 due to decline in heavy industry и increased environmental concern by post-Communist governments; air pollution nonetheless remains serious because of сера dioxide emissions from каменный уголь-fired power plants, и the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial и municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes; pollution levels should continue to decrease as industrial establishments bring their facilities up to EU code, but at substantial cost to business и the government
Португалия soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial и vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Пуэрто-Рико erosion; occasional drought causing water shortages
Катар limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
Румыния soil erosion и degradation; water pollution; air pollution in юг from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Россия air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of каменный уголь-fired electric plants, и транспорт in major cities; industrial, municipal, и agricultural pollution of inland waterways и seacoasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contamination from improper application of agricultural химическая промышленность; scattered areas of sometimes intense radioactive contamination; groundwater contamination from toxic waste; urban solid waste management; abandoned stocks of obsolete pesticides
Руанда deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Сен-Бартельми with no natural rivers или streams, fresh water is in short supply, especially in summer, и provided by desalinization of sea water, collection of rain water, или imported via water tanker
Святой Елены остров нет
Сент-Китс и Невис нет
Сент-Люсия deforestation; soil erosion, particularly in the northern region
Saint Martin fresh water supply is dependent on desalinization of sea water
Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции recent test drilling for нефть in waters around Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции may bring future development that would impact the environment
Сент-Винсент и Гренадины pollution of coastal waters и shorelines from discharges by pleasure yachts и other effluents; in some areas, pollution is severe enough to make swimming prohibitive
Самоа soil erosion, deforestation, invasive species, overfishing
Сан-Маринo нет
Сан-Томе и Принсипи deforestation; soil erosion и exhaustion
Саудовская Аравия desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers или permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from нефть spills
Сенегал wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Сербия air pollution around Belgrade и other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Сейшельские Острова water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
Сьерра-Леоне rapid population growth pressuring the environment; overharvesting of леса, expansion of cattle grazing, и slash-и-burn agriculture have resulted in deforestation и soil exhaustion; civil war depleted natural resources; overfishing
Сингапур industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from лесные пожары in Индонeзия
Словакия air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Словения Sava River polluted with domestic и industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals и toxic химическая промышленность; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical и chemical plants) и resulting acid rain
Соломоновы Острова deforestation; soil erosion; many of the surrounding coral reefs are dead или dying
Сомали famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Южно-Африканская Республика lack of important arterial rivers или lakes requires extensive water conservation и control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff и urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
Южная Георгия и Южные Сандвичевы острова нет
Южный океан increased solar ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic ozone hole in recent лет, reducing marine primary productivity (phytoplankton) by as much as 15% и damaging the DNA of some рыба; illegal, unreported, и unregulated рыболовство in recent лет, especially the landing of an estimated five to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the regulated fishery, which is likely to affect the sustainability of the stock; large amount of incidental mortality of seabirds resulting from long-line рыболовство for toothfish
примечание: the now-protected fur seal population is making a strong comeback после severe overexploitation in the 18th и 19th centuries
Испания pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage и effluents from the offshore production of нефть и газ; water quality и quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
Острова Спратли нет
Шри-Ланка deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching и urbanization; coastal degradation from добыча полезных ископаемых activities и increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes и sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo
Судан inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Суринам deforestation as леса is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale добыча полезных ископаемых activities
Свальбард нет
Свазиленд limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Швеция acid rain damage to soils и lakes; pollution of the Северный Sea и the Балтийское море
Швейцария air pollution from vehicle emissions и open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity
Сирия deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage и нефть refining wastes; inadequate potable water
Тайвань air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal
Таджикистан inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Танзания soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent засухи affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting и trade, especially for ivory
Таиланд air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic и factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Восточный Тимор widespread use of slash и burn agriculture has led to deforestation и soil erosion
Того deforestation attributable to slash-и-burn agriculture и the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards и hinders the рыболовство industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Токелау limited natural resources и overcrowding are contributing to emigration to Новая Зеландия
Тонга deforestation results as more и more land is being cleared for agriculture и settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish и indiscriminate coral и shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Тринидад и Тобаго water pollution from agricultural химическая промышленность, industrial wastes, и raw sewage; нефть pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion
Тунис toxic и hazardous waste disposal is ineffective и poses health risks; water pollution from raw sewage; limited natural fresh water resources; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Турция water pollution from dumping of химическая промышленность и detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for нефть spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Туркменистан contamination of soil и groundwater with agricultural химическая промышленность, pesticides; salination, water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Тёркс и Кайкос limited natural fresh water resources, private cisterns collect rainwater
Тувалу since there are no streams или rivers и groundwater is not potable, most water needs must be met by catchment systems with storage facilities (the Japanese Правление has built один desalination plant и plans to build один other); beachhead erosion because of the use of sand for building materials; excessive clearance of forest undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the spread of the Crown of Thorns starfish; Тувалу is concerned about global increases in greenhouse газ emissions и their effect on rising sea levels, which threaten the country's underground water table; in 2000, the government appealed to Австралия и Новая Зеландия to take in Tuvaluans if rising sea levels should make evacuation necessary
Угадна draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
Украина inadequate supplies of potable water; air и water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Объединенные Арабские Эмираты lack of natural freshwater resources compensated by desalination plants; desertification; beach pollution from нефть spills
Великобритания continues to reduce greenhouse газ emissions (has met Kyoto Protocol target of a 12.5% reduction from 1990 levels и intends to meet the legally binding target и move toward a domestic goal of a 20% cut in emissions by 2010); by 2005 the government reduced the amount of industrial и commercial waste disposed of in landfill sites to 85% of 1998 levels и recycled или composted at least 25% of household waste, increasing to 33% by 2015
США air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US и Канада; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides и fertilizers; limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification
Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов Baker, Howland, и Jarvis Islands, и Johnston Atoll: no natural fresh water resources
Kingman Reef: none
Midway Islands и Palmyra Atoll: нет
Уругвай water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
Узбекистан shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides и natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed и contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes и the heavy use of fertilizers и pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing и agricultural химическая промышленность, including DDT
Вануату most of the population does not have access to a reliable supply of potable water; deforestation
Венесуэлa sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; нефть и urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban и industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible добыча полезных ископаемых operations
Вьетнам logging и slash-и-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation и soil degradation; water pollution и overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization и population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi и Ho Chi Minh City
Виргинские Острова (Британские) lack of natural freshwater resources
Остров Уэйк нет
Уоллис и Футуна deforestation (only small portions of the original forests remain) largely as a result of the continued use of wood as the main fuel source; as a consequence of cutting down the forests, the mountainous terrain of Futuna is particularly prone to erosion; there are no permanent settlements on Alofi because of the lack of natural fresh water resources
Западный берег Иордании adequacy of fresh water supply; sewage treatment
Западная Сахара sparse water и lack of пахотные земли
Мир large areas subject to overpopulation, industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances), loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion; global warming becoming a greater concern
Емен limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Замбия air pollution и resulting acid rain in the mineral добывающая промышленность и refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, и large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Зимбабве deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air и water pollution; the черные rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor добыча полезных ископаемых practices have led to toxic waste и heavy metal pollution

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


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