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Disputes - international
Афганистан Пакистан has built fences in some portions of its border with Афганистан which remains open in some areas to foreign terrorists и other illegal activities
Албания the Albanian Правление calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, и the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Албания," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; the mass emigration of unemployed Albanians remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Греция и Италия
Алжир Алжир, и many other states, rejects Moroccan administration Западной Сахары; the Polisario Front, exiled in Алжир, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Алжир's border with Мороккo remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants и arms smuggling; Алжир remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algerian towns; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 кв. км. still reflected on its maps of southeastern Алжир и the FLN's assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Мороккo
Американское Самоа Токелау periodically asserts claims to Американское Самоа's Swains Island (Olohega), such as in its 2006 draft independence constitution
Андорра none
Ангола Cabindan separatists continue to return to the Angolan exclave from exile in neighboring states и Europe since the 2006 ceasefire и peace agreement
Ангилья none
Антарктика the Antarctic Treaty freezes, и most states do not recognize, the land и maritime territorial claims made by Аргентина, Австралия, Чили, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Норвегия, и the Великобритания (some overlapping) for three-fourths of the continent; the US и Россия reserve the right to make claims; no claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees запад и 150 degrees запад; the Международные Whaling Commission created a sancturary around the entire continent to deter catches by countries claiming to conduct scientific whaling; Австралия has established a similar preserve in the waters around its territorial claim
Антигуа и Барбуда none
Артический океан the littoral states are engaged in various stages of demonstrating the limits of their continental shelves beyond 200 nautical мили from their declared baselines in accordance with Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; record summer melting of sea ice in the Arctic has restimulated interest in maritime shipping lanes и sea floor exploration
Аргентина Аргентина continues to assert its claims to the Великобритания-administered Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова, South Грузия, и the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; territorial claim in Антарктика partially overlaps Великобритания и Chilean claims; unruly region at convergence Аргентины-Бразилия-Парагвай borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms и illegal narcotics trafficking, и fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute between Бразилия и Уругвай over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Аргентина in question; in 2006, Аргентина went to the ICJ to protest, on environmental grounds, the construction of two pulp mills in Уругвай on the Уругвай River, which forms the boundary; both parties presented their pleadings in 2007 with Аргентина's reply in January и Уругвай's rejoinder in July 2008; the joint boundary commission, established by Чили и Аргентина in 2001 has yet to map и demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
Армения Армения supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh и since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% Азербайджана - Organization for Security и Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands и Армения; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Азербайджан into Армения и Nagorno-Karabakh; Азербайджан seeks transit route through Армения to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Турция remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region Грузии seek greater autonomy; Armenians continue to emigrate, primarily to Россия, seeking employment
Аруба none
Острова Ашмор и Картье none
Атлантический океан some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Австралия Восточный Тимор и Австралия agreed in 2005 to defer the disputed portion of the boundary for fifty лет и to split hydrocarbon revenues evenly outside the Joint Petroleum Development Area covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty; dispute with Восточный Тимор hampers creation of a revised maritime boundary with Индонeзия in the Timor Sea; regional states continue to express concern over Австралия's 2004 declaration of a 1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime identification zone; Австралия asserts land и maritime claims to Антарктика; in 2004 Австралия submitted its claims to Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its continental margins covering over 3.37 миллионов квадратные километры, expanding its seabed roughly thirty percent more than its claimed exclusive economic zone; since 2003, Австралия has led the Regional Assistance Mission to the Соломоновы Острова (RAMSI) to maintain civil и political order и reinforce regional security
Австрия while threats of international legal action never materialized in 2007, 915,220 Austrians, with the support of the newly elected Freedom Party, signed a petition in January 2008, demanding that Австрия block the Чешская республика's accession to the EU unless Prague closes its nuclear power plant in Temelin, bordering Австрия
Азербайджан Армения supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh и since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% Азербайджана; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands и Армения; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Азербайджан into Армения и Nagorno-Karabakh; Азербайджан seeks transit route through Армения to connect to Naxcivan exclave; Organization for Security и Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Азербайджан, Казахстан, и Россия have ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Иран continues to insist on an even один-fifth allocation и challenges Азербайджан's hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; bilateral talks continue with Туркменистан on dividing the seabed и contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; Азербайджан и Грузия continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
Багамские Острова, The disagrees with the US on the alignment the northern axis of a potential maritime boundary; continues to monitor и interdict drug dealers и Haitian и Cuban беженцы in Bahamian waters
Бахрейн none
Бангладеш discussions with Индия remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange territory for 51 small Bangladeshi exclaves in Индия и 111 small Indian exclaves in Бангладеш, allocate divided villages, и stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, и transit of terrorists through the porous border; Бангладеш protests Индия's fencing и walling off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint Бангладеш-Индия boundary commission resurveyed и reconstructed 92 missing pillars in 2007; dispute with Индия over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; после 21 лет, Бангладеш resumes talks with Мьянма on delimiting a maritime boundary
Барбадос Барбадос и Тринидад и Тобаго abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary и limiting catches of flying рыба in Тринидад и Тобаго's exclusive economic zone; joins other Caribbean states to counter Венесуэлa's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Венесуэлa to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Беларусь Boundary demarcated with Латвия и Литва in 2006; 1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Украина remains unratified over unresolved financial claims, preventing demarcation и diminishing border security
Бельгия none
Белиз OAS-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations и Confidence Building Measures saw cooperation in repatriation of Guatemalan squatters и other areas, but Guatemalan land и maritime claims in Белиз и the Caribbean Sea remain unresolved; the Line of Adjacency created under the 2002 Differendum serves in lieu of the contiguous international boundary to control squatting in the sparsely inhabited rain forests Белиза's border region; Гондурас claims Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays in its constitution but agreed to a joint ecological park under the Differendum
Бенин in September 2007, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) intervened to attempt to resolve the dispute over two villages along the Бенин-Буркина Фасо border that remain from 2005 ICJ decision; much Бенина-Нигер boundary, including tripoint with Нигерия, remains undemarcated; in 2005, Нигерия ceded thirteen villages to Бенин, but border relations remain strained by rival cross-border gang clashes; talks continue between Бенин и Того on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
Бермуды none
Бутан Бутан cooperates with Индия to expel Indian Nagaland separatists; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Бутан и Китай continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Бутан's northwest и along the Chumbi salient
Боливия Чили и Перу rebuff Боливия's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Чили in 1884, but Чили offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Чили for Bolivian природный газ и other commodities; an accord placed the long-disputed Isla Suбrez/Ilha de Guajarб-Mirim, a fluvial island on the Rнo Mamorй, under Bolivian administration in 1958, but sovereignty remains in dispute
Босния и Герцеговина sections along the Drina River remain in dispute between Босния и Герцеговина и Сербия; discussions continue with Хорватия on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder final ratification of the 1999 border agreement
Ботсвана Ботсвана still struggles to seal its border from thousands of Zimbabweans who flee economic collapse и political persecution; Намибия has long supported, и in 2004 Зимбабве dropped objections to, plans between Ботсвана и Замбия to build a bridge over the Zambezi River at Kazungula crossing, thereby de facto recognizing the short, but not clearly delimited, Ботсвана-Замбия boundary
Остров Буве none
Бразилия unruly region at convergence Аргентины-Бразилия-Парагвай borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms и illegal narcotics trafficking, и fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested boundary dispute with Уругвай over Isla Brasilera at the confluence of the Quarai/Cuareim и Invernada rivers, that form a tripoint with Аргентина; the Itaipъ Dam reservoir covers over a once contested section Бразилии-Парагвай boundary запад of Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana; an accord placed the long-disputed Isla Suбrez/Ilha de Guajarб-Mirim, a fluvial island on the Rнo Mamorй, under Bolivian administration in 1958, but sovereignty remains in dispute
Британская территория в Индийском океане Маврикий claims the Chagos Archipelago including Diego Garcia; in 2001, the former inhabitants of the Chagos Archipelago, evicted in 1967 и 1973 и now residing chiefly in Маврикий, were granted Великобритания citizenship и the right to repatriation; in May 2007, the Великобритания Court of Appeals upheld the May 2006 High Court of London judgment reversing the Великобритания government's 2004 Orders of Council that banned habitation on the islands; a small group of Chagossians visited Diego Garcia in April 2006; repatriation is complicated by the exclusive US military lease of Diego Garcia that restricts access to the largest viable island in the chain
Британские Виргинские острова none
Бруней Бруней и Малазия reached a tentative deal in 2007 consultations to resolve their offshore и deepwater seabed dispute и resume hydrocarbon exploration, terminated in 2003, near the site of a major discovery; Малазия's land boundary with Бруней around Limbang is in dispute; Бруней established an exclusive economic рыболовство zone encompassing Louisa Reef in the southern Острова Спратли in 1984, but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South Китай Sea" has eased tensions in the Острова Спратли but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
Болгария none
Буркина Фасо in September 2007, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) intervened to attempt to resolve the dispute over two villages along the Бенин-Буркина Фасо border that remain from 2005 ICJ decision; in recent лет citizens и rogue security forces rob и harass local populations on both sides of the poorly-defined Буркина Фасо-Нигер border; despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) in Кот-д’Ивуар since 2004, ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to work in Ivorian cocoa plantations
Мьянма over half Мьянмы's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; Таиланд must deal with Karen и other ethnic беженцы, asylum seekers, и rebels, as well as illegal cross-border activities from Мьянма; Таиланд is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween River near the border with Мьянма; citing environmental, cultural, и social concerns, Китай is reconsidering construction of 13 dams on the Salween River but энергия-starved Мьянма with backing from Таиланд remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream, despite identical regional и international protests; Индия seeks cooperation from Мьянма to keep Indian Nagaland separatists, such as the United Liberation Front of Assam, from hiding in remote Burmese Uplands; после 21 лет, Бангладеш resumes talks with Мьянма on delimiting a maritime boundary in January 2008
Бурунди Бурунди и Руанда dispute sections of border on the Akanyaru/Kanyaru и the Kagera/Nyabarongo rivers, which have changed course since the 1960s, when the boundary was delimited; cross-border conflicts among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, и various government forces persist in the Great Lakes region
Камбоджа Камбоджа и Таиланд dispute sections of boundary with missing boundary markers и claims of Thai encroachments into Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Вьетнам is hampered by unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; Таиланд accuses Камбоджа of obstructing inclusion of Thai areas near Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Камбоджа by ICJ decision in 1962, as part of a planned UN Мир Heritage site
Камерун Joint Border Commission with Нигерия reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary и bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately ceded sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Камерун with a full phase-out of Nigerian control и patriation of residents in 2008; Камерун и Нигерия agree on maritime delimitation in March 2008; sovereignty dispute between Экваториальная Гвинея и Камерун over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River; only Нигерия и Камерун have heeded the Lake Чад Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also включая the Чад -Нигер и Нигер-Нигерия boundaries
Канада managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, и the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island и Северный Rock; Канада, the US, и other countries dispute the status of the Northwest Passage; US works closely with Канада to intensify security measures for monitoring и controlling legal и illegal movement of people, transport, и commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Дания over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island и Гренландия; commencing the collection of технический персонал evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nautical мили from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Кабо-Верде none
Каймановы Острoва none
Центральноафриканская Республика periodic skirmishes over water и grazing rights among related pastoral populations along the border with southern Судан persist
Чад since 2003, Janjawid armed militia и the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Чад ; Чад remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Судан arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Либия; only Нигерия и Камерун have heeded the Lake Чад Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also включая the Чад -Нигер и Нигер-Нигерия boundaries
Чили Чили и Перу rebuff Боливия's reinvigorated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Чили in 1884, but Чили has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Чили to Bolivian газ и other commodities; Чили rejects Перу's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Чили to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Перу, in October 2007, Перу took its maritime complaint with Чили to the ICJ; territorial claim in Антарктика (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine и British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Чили и Аргентина in 2001, has yet to map и demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
Китай continuing talks и confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration Китая (Aksai Chin), Индия (Jammu и Kashmir), и Пакистан (Azad Kashmir и Northern Areas); Индия does not recognize Пакистан's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Китай in 1964; Китай и Индия continue their security и foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, и other matters; Китай claims most Индии's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Бутан и Китай continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes due to cartographic discrepancies; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South Китай Seas, where Китай has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; Китай asserts sovereignty over the Острова Спратли together with Малазия, Филиппины, Тайвань, Вьетнам, и possibly Бруней; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South Китай Sea" eased tensions in the Spratly's but is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Вьетнам и Китай continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly's и in March 2005, the national нефть companies Китая, the Филиппины, и Вьетнам signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Острова Спратли; Китай occupies some of the Парасельские острова also claimed by Вьетнам и Тайвань; Китай и Тайвань continue to reject both Япония's claims to the uninhabited islands of Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) и Япония's unilaterally declared equidistance line in the East Китай Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon exploration и exploitation; certain islands in the Yalu и Tumen rivers are in dispute with Северный Korea; Северный Korea и Китай seek to stem illegal migration to Китай by Северный Koreans, fleeing privations и oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border и imprisoning Северный Koreans deported by Китай; Китай и Россия have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur и Ussuri confluence и in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; Китай и Таджикистан have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the Китай-Вьетнам land boundary is expected to be completed by the end of 2008, while the maritime boundary delimitation и fisheries agreements in the Gulf of Tonkin, ratified in June 2004, have been implemented; citing environmental, cultural, и social concerns, Китай has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but энергия-starved Мьянма, with backing from Таиланд, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional и international protests; Chinese и Гонконг authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership и use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop; Гонконг developing plans to reduce 2,000 out of 2,800 hectares of its restricted Closed Area by 2010
Рождества Остров none
Клипертон, Остров none
Кокосовые Острова none
Колумбия in December 2007, ICJ allocates San Andres, Providencia, и Santa Catalina islands to Колумбия under 1928 Treaty but does not rule on 82°W meridian as maritime boundary with Никарагуа; managed dispute with Венесуэлa over maritime boundary и Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes Islands near the Gulf Венесуэлы; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics, guerrilla, и paramilitary activities penetrate all neighboring borders и have caused Colombian citizens to flee mostly into neighboring countries; Колумбия, Гондурас, Никарагуа, Ямайка, и the US assert various claims to Bajo Nuevo и Serranilla Bank
Коморские Острова claims French-administered Майотта: заморская территория Франции и challenges Франция's и Мадагаскар's claims to Banc du Geyser, a drying reef in the Мозамбик Channel; in May 2008, African Union forces are called in to assist the Коморские Острова military recapture Anjouan Island from rebels who seized it in 2001
Congo, Democratic Республика the heads of the Great Lakes states и UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal, rebel, и militia fighting in the region, including northeast Congo, where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Республика the Congo (MONUC), organized in 1999, maintains over 16,500 uniformed peacekeepers; members Угадны's Lords Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Угадна government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Республика the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Угадна и DROC dispute Rukwanzi island in Lake Albert и other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda river claimed by Замбия near the DROC village of Pweto
Congo, Республика the the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Democratic Республика the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area
Острова Кука none
Коралловые Острова none
Коста-Рика the ICJ has given Коста-Рика until January 2008 to reply и Никарагуа until July 2008 to rejoin before rendering its decision on the navigation, security, и commercial rights of Costa Rican vessels on the Rнo San Juan over which Никарагуа retains sovereignty
Кот-д’Ивуар despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) in Кот-д’Ивуар since 2004, ethnic conflict still leaves displaced hundreds of thousands of Ivorians in и out of the country as well as driven out migrants from neighboring states who worked in Ivorian cocoa plantations; the March 2007 peace deal between Ivorian rebels и the government brought significant numbers of rebels out of hiding in neighboring states
Хорватия dispute remains with Босния и Герцеговина over several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; the Хорватия-Словения land и maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay и maritime access to Словения и several villages to Хорватия, remains un-ratified и in dispute; Словения also protests Хорватия's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a Европейское сообщество peripheral state, Словения imposed a hard border Schengen regime with non-member Хорватия in December 2007
Куба US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to US и only mutual agreement или US abandonment of the facility can terminate the lease
Кипр hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Правление и a Turkish-Cypriot community (север Кипр); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Кипр (UNFICYP) has served in Кипр since 1964 и maintains the buffer zone between север и юг; on 1 May 2004, Кипр entered the Европейское сообщество still divided, with the EU's body of legislation и standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the север; Турция protests Cypriot Правление creating hydrocarbon blocks и maritime boundary with Ливан in March 2007
Чешская республика while threats of international legal action never materialized in 2007, 915,220 Austrians, with the support of the popular Freedom Party, signed a petition in January 2008, demanding that Австрия block the Чешская республика's accession to the EU unless Prague closes its controversial Soviet-style nuclear plant in Temelin, bordering Австрия
Дания Исландия, the Великобритания, и Ирландия dispute Дания's claim that the Фарерские Острова' continental shelf extends beyond 200 миль от берега; Faroese continue to study proposals for full independence; sovereignty dispute with Канада over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island и Гренландия
Джибути Джибути maintains economic ties и border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Сомали; Кювейт is chief investor in the 2008 restoration и upgrade of the Ethiopian-Джибути rail link
Доминика Доминика is the only Caribbean state to challenge Венесуэлa's sovereignty claim over Aves Island и joins the other island nations in challenging whether the feature sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Венесуэлa to extend its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) и continental shelf claims over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Доминиканская республика Haitian migrants cross the porous border into the Доминиканская республика to find work; illegal migrants from the Доминиканская республика cross the Mona Passage each year to Пуэрто-Рико to find better work
Эквадор organized illegal narcotics operations in Колумбия penetrate across Эквадор's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country
Египет while Судан retains claim to the Hala'ib Triangle север of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s и Египет has invested in и effectively administers the area; Египет no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Судан on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Египет in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border
Сальвадор Международные Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the Сальвадор-Гондурас boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 после an Organization of American States (OAS) survey и a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; Сальвадор continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Гондурас in the Gulf of Fonseca
Экваториальная Гвинея in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement Камеруна-Экваториальная Гвинея-Нигерия maritime boundary in the Gulf Гвинеи, but a dispute between Экваториальная Гвинея и Камерун over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River и imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delay final delimitation; UN urges Экваториальная Гвинея и Габон to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Габон-occupied Mbane и lesser islands и to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
Эритрея Эритрея и Эфиопия agreed to abide by 2002 Эфиопия-Эритрея Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision but, neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Эфиопия и Эритрея (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-км-wide Temporary Security Zone in Эритрея since 2000, is extended for six months in 2007 despite Eritrean restrictions on its operations и reduced force of 17,000; Судан accuses Эритрея of supporting eastern Sudanese rebel groups
Эстония Россия recalled its signature to the 1996 технический персонал border agreement with Эстония in 2005, rather than concede to Эстония's appending prepared a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation и territorial losses; Россия demands better accommodation of Russian-speaking population in Эстония; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people и parts of the Narva region within Эстония; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Эстония must implement the strict Schengen border rules with Россия
Эфиопия Эритрея и Эфиопия agreed to abide by the 2002 Эритрея-Эфиопия Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; UN Peacekeeping Mission to Эфиопия и Эритрея (UNMEE), which has monitored the 25-км-wide Temporary Security Zone in Эритрея since 2000, is extended for six months in 2007 despite Eritrean restrictions on its operations и reduced force of 17,000; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Эфиопия's Ogaden и southern Сомали's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Сомали и routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera и trade ties to landlocked Эфиопия; civil unrest in eastern Судан has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Эфиопия
Европейское сообщество as a political union, the EU has no border disputes with neighboring countries, but Эстония has no land boundary agreements with Россия, Словения disputes its land и maritime boundaries with Хорватия, и Испания has territorial и maritime disputes with Мороккo и with the Великобритания over Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании; the EU has set up a Schengen area - consisting of 22 EU member states that have signed the convention implementing the Schengen agreements или "acquis" (1985 и 1990) on the free movement of persons и the harmonization of border controls in Europe; these agreements became incorporated into EU law with the implementation of the 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 May 1999; in addition, non-EU states Исландия и Норвегия (as part of the Nordic Union) have been included in the Schengen area since 1996 (full members in 2001), bringing the total current membership to 24; the Великобритания (since 2000) и Ирландия (since 2002) take part in only some aspects of the Schengen area, especially with respect to police и criminal matters; nine of the 12 new member states that joined the EU in 2004 joined Schengen on 21 December 2007; of the three remaining EU states, Кипр is expected to join by 2009, while Румыния и Болгария continue to enhance their border security systems
Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова Аргентина, which claims the islands in its constitution и briefly occupied them by force in 1982, agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force; Великобритания continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks
Фарерские Острова because anticipated offshore hydrocarbon resources have not been realized, earlier Faroese proposals for full independence have been deferred; Исландия, the Великобритания, и Ирландия dispute Дания's claim that the Фарерские Острова' continental shelf extends beyond 200 миль от берега
Фиджи none
Финляндия various groups in Финляндия advocate restoration of Karelia и other areas ceded to the Soviet Union, but the Finnish Правление asserts no territorial demands
Франция Мадагаскар claims the French territories of Bassas da Индия, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, и Juan de Nova Island; Коморские Острова claims Майотта: заморская территория Франции; Маврикий claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Суринам и the French overseas department of French Guiana; Франция asserts a territorial claim in Антарктика (Adelie Land); Франция и Вануату claim Matthew и Hunter Islands, восток Новой Каледонии: заморской территории Франции
Французская Полинезия none
Французские Южные и Антарктические Территории French claim to "Adelie Land" in Антарктика is not recognized by the US
Bassas da Индия, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses): claimed by Мадагаскар
Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): claimed by Маврикий
Габон UN urges Экваториальная Гвинея и Габон to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Габон-occupied Mbane Island и lesser islands и to establish a maritime boundary in hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
Гамбия attempts to stem беженцы, cross-border raids, arms smuggling, и other illegal activities by separatists from southern Сенегал 's Casamance region, as well as from conflicts in other запад African states
Сектор Газa Западный берег Иордании и Сектор Газa are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Израиль removed settlers и military personnel from the Сектор Газa in August 2005
Грузия Россия и Грузия agree on delimiting 80% of their common border, leaving certain small, strategic segments и the maritime boundary unresolved; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge in the Akhmeti region и the Argun Gorge in Abkhazia; UN Observer Mission in Грузия has maintained a peacekeeping force in Грузия since 1993; Meshkheti Turks scattered throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to Грузия; boundary with Армения remains undemarcated; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region Грузии seek greater autonomy from the Georgian government; Азербайджан и Грузия continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
Германия none
Гана Гана struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations и escaped fighting in Кот-д’Ивуар
Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании in 2002, Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government Гибралтара: заморской территории Великобритании insists on equal participation in talks between the Великобритания и Испания; Испания disapproves of Великобритания plans to grant Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании even greater autonomy
Греция Греция и Турция continue discussions to resolve their complex maritime, air, territorial, и boundary disputes in the Aegean Sea; Кипр question with Турция; Греция rejects the use of the name Македония или Республика Македония; the mass migration of unemployed Albanians still remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Греция и Италия
Гренландия managed dispute between Канада и Дания over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Канада's Ellesmere Island и Гренландия
Гренада none
Гуам none
Гватемала annual ministerial meetings under the OAS-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations и Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land и maritime claims in Белиз и the Caribbean Sea; the Line of Adjacency created under the 2002 Differendum serves in lieu of the contiguous international boundary to control squatting in the sparsely inhabited rain forests Белиза's border region; Мексика must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans и other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Мексика и the США
Гернси: коронная земля Великобритании none
Гвинея conflicts among rebel groups, warlords, и youth gangs in neighboring states have spilled over into Гвинея, resulting in domestic instability; Сьерра-Леоне considers Гвинея's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona и Moa rivers excessive и protests Гвинея's continued occupation of these lands, including the hamlet of Yenga, occupied since 1998
Гвинея-Бисау in 2006, political instability within Сенегал 's Casamance region resulted in thousands of Senegalese беженцы, cross-border raids, и arms smuggling into Гвинея-Бисау
Гвиана all of the area запад of the Essequibo River is claimed by Венесуэлa preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Гвиана has expressed its intention to join Барбадос in asserting claims before UNCLOS that Тринидад и Тобаго's maritime boundary with Венесуэлa extends into their waters; Суринам claims a triangle of land between the New и Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Гвиана seeks arbitration under provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to resolve the long-standing dispute with Суринам over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially нефть-rich waters
Гаити since 2004, about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Гаити (MINUSTAH) maintain civil order in Гаити; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Доминиканская республика и sail to neighboring countries; Гаити claims US-administered Остров Навасса
Острова Хэрда и МакДональда none
Ватикан none
Гондурас Международные Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the Сальвадор-Гондурас border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 после an Organization of American States (OAS) survey и a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; Сальвадор continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Гондурас in the Gulf of Fonseca; Гондурас claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast Белиза in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Гватемала consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Белиз-Гватемала Differendum; memorials и countermemorials were filed by the parties in Никарагуа's 1999 и 2001 proceedings against Гондурас и Колумбия at the ICJ over the maritime boundary и territorial claims in the western Caribbean Sea - final public hearings are scheduled for 2007
Гонконг none
Венгрия bilateral government, legal, технический персонал и economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Словакия over Венгрия's failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Венгрия has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
Исландия Исландия, the Великобритания, и Ирландия dispute Дания's claim that the Фарерские Острова' continental shelf extends beyond 200 миль от берега
Индия since Китай и Индия launched a security и foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that Китай transferred missiles to Пакистан, и other matters continue; various talks и confidence-building measures have cautiously begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 землетрясения in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest и most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration Китая (Aksai Chin), Индия (Jammu и Kashmir), и Пакистан (Azad Kashmir и Northern Areas); Индия и Пакистан have maintained the 2004 cease fire in Kashmir и initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Пакистан protests Индия's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control и construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu и Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River и its tributaries; UN Армия Observer Group in Индия и Пакистан (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Индия does not recognize Пакистан's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Китай in 1964; to defuse tensions и prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, Индия и Пакистан seek технический персонал resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; discussions with Бангладеш remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, to exchange territory for 51 Bangladeshi exclaves in Индия и 111 Indian exclaves in Бангладеш, to allocate divided villages, и to stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, и transit of terrorists through the porous border; Бангладеш protests Индия's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections of the border; dispute with Бангладеш over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; Индия seeks cooperation from Бутан и Мьянма to keep Indian Nagaland и Assam separatists from hiding in remote areas along the borders; Joint Border Committee with Непал continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 квадратные kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; Индия maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents и control illegal cross-border activities from Непал
Индийский океан some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Индонeзия Индонeзия has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land и maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; Восточный Тимор -Индонeзия Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai in the север и alignment with Australian claims in the юг; many беженцы from Восточный Тимор who left in 2003 still reside in Индонeзия и refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Индонeзия и Австралия settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan и Ligitan islands to Малазия in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock и the maritime boundary in the Ambalat нефть block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Индонeзия to assert claims to и to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Индонeзия и Сингапур continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas север Индонeзии's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, и illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Папуа — Новая Гвинея; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue with Палау; Indonesian groups challenge Австралия's claim to Ashmore Reef; Австралия has closed parts of the Ashmore и Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional рыболовство и placed restrictions on certain catches
Иран Иран protests Афганистан's limiting flow of dammed tributaries to the Helmand River in periods of drought; Ирак's lack of a maritime boundary with Иран prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Иран и UAE dispute Tunb Islands и Abu Musa Island, which are occupied by Иран; Иран stands alone among littoral states in insisting upon a division of the Caspian Sea into five equal sectors
Ирак coalition forces assist Iraqis in monitoring internal и cross-border security; approximately two миллионов Iraqis have fled the conflict in Ирак, with the majority taking refuge in Сирия и Иордания, и lesser numbers to Египет, Ливан, Иран, и Турция; Ирак's lack of a maritime boundary with Иран prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Турция has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds in Ирак
Ирландия Ирландия, Исландия, и the Великобритания dispute Дания's claim that the Фарерские Острова' continental shelf extends beyond 200 миль от берега
Остров Мэн none
Израиль Западный берег Иордании и Сектор Газa are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Израиль continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line и within the Западный берег Иордании; Израиль withdrew its settlers и military from the Сектор Газa и from four settlements in the Западный берег Иордании in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Ливан claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, и assist other UN personnel in the region
Италия Италия's long coastline и developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe и northern Africa
Ямайка none
Ян-Майен none
Япония the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, и Shikotan, и the Habomai group, known in Япония as the "Northern Territories" и in Россия as the "Southern Kuril Islands," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Россия и claimed by Япония, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Мир War II hostilities; Япония и South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) occupied by South Korea since 1954; Китай и Тайвань dispute both Япония's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) и Япония's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East Китай Sea, the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting
Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании none
Иордания approximately two миллионов Iraqis have fled the conflict in Ирак, with the majority taking refuge in Сирия и Иордания; 2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Сирия pending demarcation
Казахстан Киргизия has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Казахстан; field demarcation of the boundaries with Туркменистан commenced in 2005, и with Узбекистан in 2004; demarcation is scheduled to get underway with Россия in 2007; demarcation with Китай was completed in 2002; creation of a seabed boundary with Туркменистан in the Caspian Sea remains under discussion; equidistant seabed treaties have been ratified with Азербайджан и Россия in the Caspian Sea, but no resolution has been made on dividing the water column among any of the littoral states
Кения Кения served as an important mediator in brokering Судан's север-юг separation in February 2005; Кения provides shelter to almost a quarter of a миллионов беженцы, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels; Кения works hard to prevent the clan и militia fighting in Сомали from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Кения's и Судан's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Кения has administered since colonial times
Кирибати none
Северная Корея risking arrest, imprisonment, и deportation, tens of thousands of Северный Koreans cross into Китай to escape famine, economic privation, и political oppression; Северный Korea и Китай dispute the sovereignty of certain islands in Yalu и Tumen rivers; Армия Demarcation Line within the 4-км wide Demilitarized Zone has separated Северный from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents in the Yellow Sea with South Korea which claims the Northern Limiting Line as a maritime boundary; Северный Korea supports South Korea in rejecting Япония's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima)
Южная Корея Армия Demarcation Line within the 4-км wide Demilitarized Zone has separated Северный from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents with Северный Korea in the Yellow Sea over the Northern Limiting Line, which South Korea claims as a maritime boundary; South Korea и Япония claim Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima), occupied by South Korea since 1954
Косовo Сербия with several other states protest the US и other states' recognition Косовo's declaring itself as a sovereign и independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Косовo's northern border challenge final status Косовo-Сербия boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Косовo between the ethnic Albanian majority и the Serb minority in Косовo; Косовo authorities object to alignment of the Косовo boundary with Македония in accordance with the 2000 Македония-Сербия и Монтенегро delimitation agreement
Кювейт Кювейт и Саудовская Аравия continue negotiating a joint maritime boundary with Иран; no maritime boundary exists with Ирак in the Persian Gulf
Киргизия Киргизия has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Казахстан; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Таджикистан; delimitation of 130 км of border with Узбекистан is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves и other areas
Лаоc Southeast азиаты states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Таиланд but disputes remain over islands in the Mekong River; concern among Mekong Commission members that Китай's construction of dams on the Mekong River will affect water levels
Латвия Россия refuses to sign the 1997 boundary treaty due to Latvian insistence on a unilateral clarificatory declaration referencing Soviet occupation Латвии и territorial losses; Россия demands better Latvian treatment of ethnic Russians in Латвия; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Беларусь was complete и mapped with final ratification documentation in preparation; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Литва, primarily due to concerns over нефть exploration rights; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Латвия has implemented the strict Schengen border rules with Россия
Ливан lacking a treaty или other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Ливан-Сирия boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Ливан has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Ливан (UNIFIL) has been in place since 1978
Лесото none
Либерия although civil unrest continues to abate with the assistance of 18,000 UN Mission in Либерия (UNMIL) peacekeepers, as of January 2007, Liberian беженцы still remain in Гвинея, Кот-д’Ивуар, Сьерра-Леоне , и Гана; Либерия, in turn, shelters беженцы fleeing turmoil in Кот-д’Ивуар; despite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) in Кот-д’Ивуар since 2004, ethnic conflict continues to spread into neighboring states who can no longer send their migrant workers to Ivorian cocoa plantations; UN sanctions ban Либерия from exporting алмазы и леса
Либия Либия has claimed more than 32,000 кв. км. in southeastern Алжир и about 25,000 кв. км. in the Tommo region Нигера in a currently dormant dispute; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Либия
Лихтенштейн none
Литва Литва и Россия committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land и maritime treaty ratified by Россия in May 2003 и by Литва in 1999; Литва operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Россия, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Литва, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Беларусь was complete и mapped with final ratification documents in preparation
Люксембург none
Macau none
Македония ethnic Albanians in Косовo object to demarcation of the boundary with Сербия in accordance with the 2000 Македония-Сербия и Монтенегро delimitation agreement; Греция continues to reject the use of the name Македония или Республика Македония
Мадагаскар claims Bassas da Индия, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, и Juan de Nova Island (all administered by Франция)
Малави disputes with Танзания over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Малави) и the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
Малазия Малазия has asserted sovereignty over the Острова Спратли together with Китай, Филиппины, Тайвань, Вьетнам, и possibly Бруней; while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South Китай Sea" has eased tensions over the Острова Спратли, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Малазия was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national нефть companies Китая, the Филиппины, и Вьетнам on conducting marine seismic activities in the Острова Спратли; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Сингапур, Сингапур's land reclamation, bridge construction, и maritime boundaries in the Johor и Сингапур Straits; in November 2007, the ICJ will hold public hearings in response to the Memorials и Countermemorials filed by the parties in 2003 и 2005 over sovereignty of Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks и South Ledge; ICJ awarded Ligitan и Sipadan islands, also claimed by Индонeзия и Филиппины, to Малазия but left maritime boundary и sovereignty of Unarang rock in the hydrocarbon-rich Celebes Sea in dispute; separatist violence in Таиланд's predominantly мусульмане southern provinces prompts measures to close и monitor border with Малазия to stem terrorist activities; Филиппины retains a dormant claim to Малазия's Sabah State in northern Borneo; Бруней и Малазия are still considering international adjudication over their disputed offshore и deepwater seabeds, where hydrocarbon exploration was terminated in 2003; Малазия's land boundary with Бруней around Limbang is in dispute; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Мальдивы none
Мали none
Мальта none
Маршалловы Острова claims US territory Островов Уэйк
Мавритания Mauritanian claims to Западная Сахара remain dormant
Маврикий Маврикий claims the Chagos Archipelago (Великобритания-administered Британская территория в Индийском океане), и its former inhabitants, who reside chiefly in Маврикий; claims French-administered Tromelin Island
Майотта: заморская территория Франции claimed by Коморские Острова
Мексика abundant rainfall in recent лет along much of the Мексика-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor и control legal и illegal personnel, transport, и commodities across its border with Мексика; Мексика must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans и other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Мексика и the США
Микронезия none
Молдавия Молдавия и Украина operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people и commodities through Молдавия's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under OSCE supervision
Монако none
Монголия none
Монтенегро none
Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании none
Мороккo claims и administers Западная Сахара whose sovereignty remains unresolved - UN-administered cease-fire has remained in effect since September 1991, but attempts to hold a referendum have failed и parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; Мороккo protests Испания's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, и Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas и Islas Chafarinas, и surrounding waters; discussions have not progressed on a comprehensive maritime delimitation, setting limits on resource exploration и refugee interdiction, since Мороккo's 2002 rejection Испании's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands; Мороккo serves as один of the primary launching areas of illegal migration into Испания from Северный Africa
Мозамбик none
Намибия concerns from international experts и local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Ботсвана и human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Ангола-Намибия border; managed dispute with Южно-Африканская Республика over the location of the boundary in the Orange River; Намибия has supported, и in 2004 Зимбабве dropped objections to, plans between Ботсвана и Замбия to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Ботсвана-Замбия boundary in the river
Науру none
Остров Навасса claimed by Гаити, source of subsistence рыболовство
Непал joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with Индия, including the 400 квадратные kilometer dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; Индия has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents и illegal cross-border activities; approximately 106,000 Bhutanese Lhotshampas (Hindus) have been confined in refugee camps in southeastern Непал since 1990
Нидерланды none
Нидерландские Антильские о-ва none
Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции Matthew и Hunter Islands восток Новой Каледонии: заморской территории Франции claimed by Франция и Вануату
Новая Зеландия asserts a territorial claim in Антарктика (Ross Dependency)
Никарагуа memorials и countermemorials were filed by the parties in Никарагуа's 1999 и 2001 proceedings against Гондурас и Колумбия at the ICJ over the maritime boundary и territorial claims in the western Caribbean Sea, final public hearings are scheduled for 2007; the 1992 ICJ ruling for Сальвадор и Гондурас advised a tripartite resolution to establish a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca, which considers Honduran access to the Pacific; legal dispute over navigational rights of San Juan River on border with Коста-Рика
Нигер Либия claims about 25,000 кв. км. in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; much Бенина-Нигер boundary, including tripoint with Нигерия, remains undemarcated; only Нигерия и Камерун have heeded the Lake Чад Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also включая the Чад -Нигер и Нигер-Нигерия boundaries
Нигерия Joint Border Commission with Камерун reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary и bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Камерун with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two лет while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement Камеруна-Экваториальная Гвинея-Нигерия maritime boundary in the Gulf Гвинеи, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision и a sovereignty dispute between Экваториальная Гвинея и Камерун over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Нигерия и Камерун have heeded the Lake Чад Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also включая the Чад -Нигер и Нигер-Нигерия boundaries
Ниуэ none
Норфолк none
Северные Марианские острова none
Норвегия Норвегия asserts a territorial claim in Антарктика (Queen Maud Land и its continental shelf); despite dialogue, Россия и Норвегия continue to dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea и Россия's рыболовство rights beyond Свальбард's territorial limits within the Свальбард Treaty zone
Оман boundary agreement reportedly signed и ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Оман's Musandam Peninsula и Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public
Тихий океан some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Пакистан various talks и confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 землетрясения in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest и most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration Китая (Aksai Chin), Индия (Jammu и Kashmir), и Пакистан (Azad Kashmir и Northern Areas); UN Армия Observer Group in Индия и Пакистан (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; Индия does not recognize Пакистан's ceding historic Kashmir lands to Китай in 1964; Индия и Пакистан have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir и initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Пакистан protests Индия's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control и construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu и Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River и its tributaries; to defuse tensions и prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, Индия и Пакистан seek технический персонал resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in Индия's Gujarat State; by 2005, Пакистан, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 миллионов Afghan беженцы leaving slightly more than a миллионов, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Пакистан has proposed и Афганистан protests construction of a fence и laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Пакистан has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor и control the border with Афганистан и to stem terrorist или other illegal activities
Палау maritime delineation negotiations continue with Филиппины, Индонeзия
Панама organized illegal narcotics operations in Колумбия operate within the remote border region with Панама
Папуа — Новая Гвинея relies on assistance from Австралия to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Индонeзия, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, и squatters и secessionists
Парасельские острова occupied by Китай, also claimed by Тайвань и Вьетнам
Парагвай unruly region at convergence Аргентины-Бразилия-Парагвай borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms и illegal narcotics trafficking, и fundraising for extremist organizations
Перу Чили и Эквадор rejected Перу's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Перу; organized illegal narcotics operations in Колумбия have penetrated Перу's shared border; Перу rejects Боливия's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Чили along the Peruvian border
Филиппины Филиппины claims sovereignty over certain of the Острова Спратли, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by Китай, Малазия, Тайвань, и Вьетнам; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South Китай Sea," has eased tensions in the Острова Спратли but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national нефть companies Китая, the Филиппины, и Вьетнам signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Острова Спратли; Филиппины retains a dormant claim to Малазия's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Филиппины Правление power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Палау
Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании none
Польша as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Польша has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration и trade along its eastern borders with Беларусь и Украина
Португалия Португалия does not recognize испанский sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna и the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Пуэрто-Рико increasing numbers of illegal migrants from the Доминиканская республика cross the Mona Passage to Пуэрто-Рико each year looking for work
Катар none
Румыния the ICJ gave Украина until December 2006 to reply, и Румыния until June 2007 to issue a rejoinder, in their dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island и Черное море maritime boundary delimitation; Румыния also opposes Украина's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Украина to the Черное море
Россия Китай и Россия have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur и Ussuri confluence и in the Argun River in accordance with the 2004 Agreement, ending their centuries-long border disputes; the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, и the Habomai group, known in Япония as the "Northern Territories" и in Россия as the "Southern Kurils," occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945, now administered by Россия, и claimed by Япония, remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending Мир War II hostilities; Россия и Грузия agree on delimiting all but small, strategic segments of the land boundary и the maritime boundary; OSCE observers monitor volatile areas such as the Pankisi Gorge in the Akhmeti region и the Kodori Gorge in Abkhazia; Азербайджан, Казахстан, и Россия signed equidistance boundaries in the Caspian seabed but the littoral states have no consensus on dividing the water column; Россия и Норвегия dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea и Россия's рыболовство rights beyond Свальбард's territorial limits within the Свальбард Treaty zone; various groups in Финляндия advocate restoration of Karelia (Kareliya) и other areas ceded to the Soviet Union following the Second Мир War but the Finnish Правление asserts no territorial demands; in May 2005, Россия recalled its signatures to the 1996 border agreements with Эстония (1996) и Латвия (1997), when the two Baltic states announced issuance of unilateral declarations referencing Soviet occupation и ensuing territorial losses; Россия demands better treatment of ethnic Russians in Эстония и Латвия; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people и parts of the Narva region within Эстония; Литва и Россия committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land и maritime treaty ratified by Россия in May 2003 и by Литва in 1999; Литва operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Россия, while still conforming, as an EU member state with an EU external border, where strict Schengen border rules apply; preparations for the demarcation delimitation of land boundary with Украина have commenced; the dispute over the boundary between Россия и Украина through the Kerch Strait и Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement и on-going expert-level discussions; Казахстан и Россия boundary delimitation was ratified on November 2005 и field demarcation should commence in 2007; Russian Duma has not yet ratified 1990 Bering Sea Maritime Boundary Agreement with the US
Руанда fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, и various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries Бурунди, Democratic Республика the Congo, Руанда, и Угадна - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, и efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan беженцы still reside in 21 African states, including Замбия, Габон, и 20,000 who fled to Бурунди in 2005 и 2006 to escape drought и recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC и Руанда border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place
Святой Елены остров none
Сент-Китс и Невис joins other Caribbean states to counter Венесуэлa's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Венесуэлa to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Сент-Люсия joins other Caribbean states to counter Венесуэлa's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Венесуэлa to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции none
Сент-Винсент и Гренадины joins other Caribbean states to counter Венесуэлa's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UNCLOS, which permits Венесуэлa to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Самоа none
Сан-Маринo none
Сан-Томе и Принсипи none
Саудовская Аравия Саудовская Аравия has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Емен to stem illegal cross-border activities; Кювейт и Саудовская Аравия continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Иран
Сенегал The Gambia и Гвинея-Бисау attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, и arms smuggling into their countries from Сенегал 's Casamance region, и in 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 и 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Гвинея-Бисау residents fled into Сенегал in 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border
Сербия Сербия with several other states protest the U.S. и other states' recognition Косовo's declaring itself as a sovereign и independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Косовo's northern border challenge final status Косовo-Сербия boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Косовo between the ethnic Albanian majority и the Serb minority in Косовo; Сербия delimited about half of the boundary with Босния и Герцеговина, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Сейшельские Острова together with Маврикий, Сейшельские Острова claims the Chagos Archipelago (Великобритания-administered Британская территория в Индийском океане)
Сьерра-Леоне as domestic fighting among disparate ethnic groups, rebel groups, warlords, и youth gangs in Кот-д’Ивуар, Гвинея, Либерия, и Сьерра-Леоне gradually abate, the number of беженцы in border areas has begun to slowly dwindle; UN Mission in Сьерра-Леоне (UNAMSIL) has maintained over 4,000 peacekeepers in Сьерра-Леоне since 1999; Сьерра-Леоне considers excessive Гвинея's definition of the flood plain limits to define the left bank boundary of the Makona и Moa rivers и protests Гвинея's continued occupation of these lands including the hamlet of Yenga occupied since 1998
Сингапур disputes persist with Малазия over deliveries of fresh water to Сингапур, Сингапур's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, и maritime boundaries in the Johor и Сингапур Straits; in November 2007, the ICJ will hold public hearings as a consequence of the Memorials и Countermemorials filed by the parties in 2003 и 2005 over sovereignty of Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks и South Ledge; Индонeзия и Сингапур continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas север Индонeзии's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Словакия bilateral government, legal, технический персонал и economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Словакия и Венгрия over Венгрия's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Словакия has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
Словения the Хорватия-Словения land и maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay и maritime access to Словения и several villages to Хорватия, remains unratified и in dispute; Словения also protests Хорватия's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Словения has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration и commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Хорватия
Соломоновы Острова since 2003, the Regional Assistance Mission to the Соломоновы Острова (RAMSI), consisting of police, military, и civilian advisors drawn from 15 countries, has assisted in reestablishing и maintaining civil и political order while reinforcing regional stability и security
Сомали Ethiopian forces invaded southern Сомали и routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Эфиопия и have established commercial ties with other regional states; "Puntland" и "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations и overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Эфиопия's Ogaden и southern Сомали's Oromo region; Кения works hard to prevent the clan и militia fighting in Сомали from spreading юг across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
Южно-Африканская Республика Южно-Африканская Республика has placed military along the border to apprehend the thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing economic dysfunction и political persecution; as of January 2007, Южно-Африканская Республика also supports large numbers of беженцы и asylum seekers from the Democratic Республика the Congo (33,000), Сомали (20,000), Бурунди (6,500), и other states in Africa (26,000); managed dispute with Намибия over the location of the boundary in the Orange River; in 2006, Swazi king advocates resort to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga и KwaZulu-Natal from Южно-Африканская Республика
Южная Георгия и Южные Сандвичевы острова Аргентина, which claims the islands in its constitution и briefly occupied them by force in 1982, agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force
Южный океан Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Антарктика entry), but Аргентина, Австралия, Чили, Франция, NZ, Норвегия, и Великобритания assert claims (some overlapping), including the continental shelf in the Южный океан; several states have expressed an interest in extending those continental shelf claims under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to include undersea ridges; the US и most other states do not recognize the land или maritime claims of other states и have made no claims themselves (the US и Россия have reserved the right to do so); no formal claims exist in the waters in the sector between 90 degrees запад и 150 degrees запад
Испания in 2002, Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony и against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation in talks between the Великобритания и Испания; Испания disapproves of Великобритания plans to grant Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании greater autonomy; Мороккo protests Испания's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, и the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas и Islas Chafarinas, и surrounding waters; Мороккo serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Испания from Северный Africa; Португалия does not recognize испанский sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna и the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Острова Спратли all of the Острова Спратли are claimed by Китай, Тайвань, и Вьетнам; parts of them are claimed by Малазия и the Филиппины; in 1984, Бруней established an exclusive рыболовство zone that encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Острова Спратли but has not publicly claimed the reef; claimants in November 2002 signed the "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South Китай Sea," which has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct"; in March 2005, the national нефть companies Китая, the Филиппины, и Вьетнам signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Острова Спратли
Шри-Ланка none
Судан the effects Судана's almost constant ethnic и rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; as of 2006, Чад , Эфиопия, Кения, Центральноафриканская Республика , Democratic Республика the Congo, и Угадна provided shelter for over half a миллионов Sudanese беженцы, which включая 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia и the Sudanese military forces; Судан, in turn, hosted about 116,000 Eritreans, 20,000 Chadians, и smaller numbers of Ethiopians, Ugandans, Central Africans, и Congolese as беженцы; in February 2006, Судан и DROC signed an agreement to repatriate 13,300 Sudanese и 6,800 Congolese; Судан accuses Эритрея of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Эфиопия proceed slowly due to civil и ethnic fighting in eastern Судан; the boundary that separates Кения и Судан's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Кения has administered since colonial times; while Судан claims to administer the Hala'ib Triangle север of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel; both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s, и Египет has invested in и effectively administers the area; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water и grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Центральноафриканская Республика
Суринам area claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani и Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Суринам claims a triangle of land between the New и Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Гвиана seeks United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) arbitration to resolve the long-standing dispute with Суринам over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially нефть-rich waters
Свальбард despite recent discussions, Россия и Норвегия dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea и Россия's рыболовство rights beyond Свальбард's territorial limits within the Свальбард Treaty zone
Свазиленд in 2006, Swazi king advocates resort to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga и KwaZulu-Natal from Южно-Африканская Республика
Швеция none
Швейцария none
Сирия Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied with the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; lacking a treaty или other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Ливан-Сирия boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Ливан has claimed Shaba'a farms in the Golan Heights; 2004 Agreement и pending demarcation settles border dispute with Иордания; approximately two миллионов Iraqis have fled the conflict in Ирак with the majority taking refuge in Сирия и Иордания
Тайвань involved in complex dispute with Китай, Малазия, Филиппины, Вьетнам, и possibly Бруней over the Острова Спратли; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South Китай Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Парасельские острова are occupied by Китай, but claimed by Тайвань и Вьетнам; in 2003, Китай и Тайвань became more vocal in rejecting both Япония's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) и Япония's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East Китай Sea where all parties engage in hydrocarbon prospecting
Таджикистан in 2006, Китай и Таджикистан pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Узбекистан to delimit border и remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Киргизия
Танзания Танзания still hosts more than a half-миллионов беженцы, more than any other African country, mainly from Бурунди и the Democratic Республика the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes with Малави over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Малави) и the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
Таиланд separatist violence in Таиланд's predominantly мусульмане southern provinces prompt border closures и controls with Малазия to stem terrorist activities; Southeast азиаты states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Лаоc but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Таиланд must deal with Karen и other ethnic rebels, беженцы, и illegal cross-border activities, и as of 2006, over 116,000 Karen, Hmong, и other беженцы и asylum seekers from Мьянма; Камбоджа и Таиланд dispute sections of historic boundary with missing boundary markers; Камбоджа claims Thai encroachments into Cambodian territory и obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Камбоджа by ICJ decision in 1962; Таиланд is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Мьянма; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted Китай to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through Китай, Мьянма, и Таиланд
Восточный Тимор Восточный Тимор -Индонeзия Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai in the север и alignment with Australian claims in the юг; many беженцы who left Восточный Тимор in 2003 still reside in Индонeзия и refuse repatriation; Австралия и Восточный Тимор agreed in 2005 to defer the disputed portion of the boundary for 50 лет и to split hydrocarbon revenues evenly outside the Joint Petroleum Development Area covered by the 2002 Timor Sea Treaty
Того in 2001, Бенин claimed Того moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006 14,000 Togolese беженцы remain in Бенин и Гана out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005
Токелау Токелау included Американское Самоа's Swains Island (Olohega) in its 2006 draft constitution
Тонга none
Тринидад и Тобаго in April 2006, the Permanent Court of Arbitration issued a decision that delimited a maritime boundary with Тринидад и Тобаго и compelled Барбадос to enter a рыболовство agreement that limited Barbadian fishermen's catches of flying рыба in Тринидад и Тобаго's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Барбадос и Тринидад и Тобаго agreed to compulsory international arbitration under UNCLOS challenging whether the northern limit Тринидада и Тобаго's и Венесуэлa's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Гвиана has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Тринидад и Тобаго-Венесуэлa maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well
Тунис none
Турция complex maritime, air, и territorial disputes with Греция in the Aegean Sea; status of север Кипр question remains; Сирия и Ирак protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Турция has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Ирак; border with Армения remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Туркменистан хлопок monoculture in Узбекистан и Туркменистан creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Казахстан commenced in 2005, but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled with Азербайджан, Иран, и Казахстан due to Туркменистан's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters и seabed
Тёркс и Кайкос have received Haitians fleeing economic и civil disorder
Тувалу none
Угадна Угадна is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, и various government forces that extend across its borders; Угадна hosts 209,860 Sudanese, 27,560 Congolese, и 19,710 Rwandan беженцы, while Ugandan беженцы as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Судан и the Democratic Республика the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
Украина 1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Беларусь remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation и reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Россия is complete with preparations for demarcation underway; the dispute over the boundary between Россия и Украина through the Kerch Strait и Sea of Azov remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement и ongoing expert-level discussions; Молдавия и Украина operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people и commodities through Молдавия's break-away Transnistria Region, which remains under OSCE supervision; the ICJ gave Украина until December 2006 to reply, и Румыния until June 2007 to rejoin, in their dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island и Черное море maritime boundary; Румыния opposes Украина's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Украина to the Черное море
Объединенные Арабские Эмираты boundary agreement was signed и ratified with Оман in 2003 for entire border, including Оман's Musandam Peninsula и Al Madhah enclaves, but contents of the agreement и detailed maps showing the alignment have not been published; Иран и UAE dispute Tunb Islands и Abu Musa Island, which Иран occupies
Великобритания in 2002, Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement between the Великобритания и Испания; the Правление Гибралтара: заморской территории Великобритании insists on equal participation in talks between the two countries; Испания disapproves of Великобритания plans to grant Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании greater autonomy; Маврикий и Сейшельские Острова claim the Chagos Archipelago (Британская территория в Индийском океане), и its former inhabitants since their eviction in 1965; most Chagossians reside in Маврикий, и in 2001 were granted Великобритания citizenship, where some have since resettled; in May 2006, the High Court of London reversed the Великобритания Правление's 2004 orders of council that banned habitation on the islands; Великобритания rejects sovereignty talks requested by Аргентина, which still claims the Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова и Южная Георгия и Южные Сандвичевы острова; territorial claim in Антарктика (British Antarctic Territory) overlaps Argentine claim и partially overlaps Chilean claim; Исландия, the Великобритания, и Ирландия dispute Дания's claim that the Фарерские Острова' continental shelf extends beyond 200 миль от берега
США the U.S. has intensified domestic security measures и is collaborating closely with its neighbors, Канада и Мексика, to monitor и control legal и illegal personnel, transport, и commodities across the international borders; abundant rainfall in recent лет along much of the Мексика-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; 1990 Maritime Boundary Agreement in the Bering Sea still awaits Russian Duma ratification; managed maritime boundary disputes with Канада at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, и around the disputed Machias Seal Island и Северный Rock; The Багамские Острова и US have not been able to agree on a maritime boundary; US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased from Куба и only mutual agreement или US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Гаити claims US-administered Остров Навасса; US has made no territorial claim in Антарктика (but has reserved the right to do so) и does not recognize the claims of any other states; Маршалловы Острова claims Остров Уэйк; Токелау included Американское Самоа's Swains Island among the islands listed in its 2006 draft constitution
Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов none
Уругвай in Jan 2007, ICJ provisionally ruled Уругвай may begin construction of two paper mills on the Уругвай River, which forms the border with Аргентина, while the court examines further whether Аргентина has the legal right to stop such construction with potential environmental implications to both countries; uncontested dispute with Бразилия over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim и Invernada streams и the resulting tripoint with Аргентина
Узбекистан prolonged drought и хлопок monoculture in Узбекистан и Туркменистан creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Казахстан commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 км of border with Киргизия is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves и other areas
Вануату Matthew и Hunter Islands восток Новой Каледонии: заморской территории Франции claimed by Вануату и Франция
Венесуэлa claims all of the area запад of the Essequibo River in Гвиана, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Гвиана has expressed its intention to join Барбадос in asserting claims before the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that Тринидад и Тобаго's maritime boundary with Венесуэлa extends into their waters; dispute with Колумбия over maritime boundary и Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes islands near the Gulf Венесуэлы; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics и paramilitary activities penetrate Венесуэлa's shared border region; in 2006, an estimated 139,000 Colombians sought protection in 150 communities along the border in Венесуэлa; US, Франция, и the Нидерланды recognize Венесуэлa's granting full effect to Aves Island, thereby claiming a Venezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Доминика, Сент-Китс и Невис , Сент-Люсия, и Сент-Винсент и Гренадины protest Венесуэлa's full effect claim
Вьетнам southeast азиаты states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Камбоджа и Лаоc protest Vietnamese squatters и armed encroachments along border; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese беженцы reside in Китай; establishment of a maritime boundary with Камбоджа is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; demarcation of the Китай-Вьетнам boundary proceeds slowly и although the maritime boundary delimitation и fisheries agreements were ratified in June 2004, implementation has been delayed; Китай occupies the Парасельские острова also claimed by Вьетнам и Тайвань; involved in complex dispute with Китай, Малазия, Филиппины, Тайвань, и possibly Бруней over the Острова Спратли; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South Китай Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Вьетнам continues to expand construction of facilities in the Острова Спратли; in March 2005, the national нефть companies Китая, the Филиппины, и Вьетнам signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Острова Спратли
Виргинские Острова (Британские) none
Остров Уэйк claimed by Маршалловы Острова
Уоллис и Футуна none
Западный берег Иордании Западный берег Иордании и Сектор Газa are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Израиль continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line и within the Западный берег Иордании; Израиль withdrew from four settlements in the northern Западный берег Иордании in August 2005; since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), headquartered in Jerusalem, monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, и assist other UN personnel in the region
Западная Сахара Мороккo claims и administers Западная Сахара, whose sovereignty remains unresolved; UN-administered cease-fire has remained in effect since September 1991, administered by the UN Mission for the Referendum in Западная Сахара (MINURSO), but attempts to hold a referendum have failed и parties thus far have rejected all brokered proposals; several states have extended diplomatic relations to the "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic" represented by the Polisario Front in exile in Алжир, while others recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Западная Сахара; most of the approximately 102,000 Sahrawi беженцы are sheltered in camps in Tindouf, Алжир
Мир stretching over 250,000 км, the world's 322 international land boundaries separate 194 independent states и 70 dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, и other miscellaneous entities; ethnicity, culture, race, religion, и language have divided states into separate political entities as much as history, physical terrain, political fiat, или conquest, resulting in sometimes arbitrary и imposed boundaries; most maritime states have claimed limits that include territorial seas и exclusive economic zones; overlapping limits due to adjacent или opposite coasts create the potential for 430 bilateral maritime boundaries of which 209 have agreements that include contiguous и non-contiguous segments; boundary, borderland/resource, и territorial disputes vary in intensity from managed или dormant to violent или militarized; undemarcated, indefinite, porous, и unmanaged boundaries tend to encourage illegal cross-border activities, uncontrolled migration, и confrontation; territorial disputes may evolve from historical и/или cultural claims, или they may be brought on by resource competition; ethnic и cultural clashes continue to be responsible for much of the territorial fragmentation и internal displacement of the estimated 6.6 миллионов people и cross-border displacements of 8.6 миллионов беженцы around the world as of early 2006; just over один миллионов беженцы were repatriated in the same period; other sources of contention include access to water и mineral (especially hydrocarbon) resources, fisheries, и пахотные земли; armed conflict prevails not so much between the uniformed armed forces of independent states as between stateless armed entities that detract from the sustenance и welfare of local populations, leaving the community of nations to cope with resultant беженцы, hunger, disease, impoverishment, и environmental degradation
Емен Саудовская Аравия has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Емен to stem illegal cross-border activities
Замбия in 2004, Зимбабве dropped objections to plans between Ботсвана и Замбия to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Ботсвана-Замбия boundary in the river; 42,250 Congolese беженцы in Замбия are offered voluntary repatriation in November 2006, most of whom are expected to return in the next two лет; Angolan беженцы too have been repatriating but 26,450 still remain with 90,000 others from other neighboring states in 2006
Зимбабве Ботсвана built electric fences и Южно-Африканская Республика has placed military along the border to stem the flow of thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing to find work и escape political persecution; Намибия has supported, и in 2004 Зимбабве dropped objections to, plans between Ботсвана и Замбия to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Ботсвана-Замбия boundary in the river

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


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