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Executive branch
Афганистан глава государства: Президент of the Islamic Республика Афганистан Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia MASOOD и Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства; former King ZAHIR Shah held the honorific, "Father of the Страна," и presided symbolically over certain occasions but lacked any governing authority; the honorific is not hereditary; King ZAHIR Shah died on 23 July 2007
глава правительства: Президент of the Islamic Республика Афганистан Hamid KARZAI (since 7 December 2004); Vice Presidents Ahmad Zia MASOOD и Abdul Karim KHALILI (since 7 December 2004)
cabinet: 25 ministers; note - under the new constitution, ministers are appointed by the president и approved by the National Assembly
выборы: the president и two vice presidents are elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if no candidate receives 50% или more of the vote in the first round of voting, the two candidates with the most votes will participate in a second round; a president can only be elected for two terms; election last held 9 October 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
результаты выборов: Hamid KARZAI elected president; percent of vote - Hamid KARZAI 55.4%, Yunus QANUNI 16.3%, Ustad Mohammad MOHAQQEQ 11.6%, Abdul Rashid DOSTAM 10.0%, Abdul Latif PEDRAM 1.4%, Masooda JALAL 1.2%
Akrotiri глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
глава правительства: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Richard LACEY (since 26 April 2006); note - reports to the British Ministry of Defense
выборы: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is appointed by the monarch
Албания глава государства: Президент of the Republic Bamir TOPI (since 24 July 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Sali BERISHA (since 10 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, и approved by parliament
выборы: president elected by the Люди's Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); four election rounds held between 8 и 20 July 2007 (next election to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Bamir TOPI elected president; Люди's Assembly vote, fourth round (three-fifths majority (84 votes) required): Bamir TOPI 85 votes, Neritan CEKA 5 votes
Алжир глава государства: Президент Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 23 June 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS 6.4%, Abdellah DJABALLAH 5%
Американское Самоа глава государства: Президент George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice Президент Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)
глава правительства: Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 7 April 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet made up of 12 department directors
выборы: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Американское Самоа, do not vote in elections for US president и vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic и Republican presidential primary elections; governor и lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 2 и 16 November 2004 (next to be held in November 2008)
результаты выборов: Togiola TULAFONO elected governor; percent of vote - Togiola TULAFONO 55.7%, Afoa Moega LUTU 44.3%
Андорра глава государства: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002) и испанский Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since 30 July 2003)
глава правительства: Executive Council Президент Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council или Govern designated by the Executive Council president
выборы: Executive Council president elected by the General Council и formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held in April-May 2009)
результаты выборов: Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - нет
Ангола глава государства: Президент Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed prime minister on 6 December 2002
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive или discontinuous term) under the 1992 constitution; Президент DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a один-party system и stood for reelection in Ангола's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held in 2009)
результаты выборов: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held because SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence Анголы (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president
Ангилья глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Andrew N. GEORGE (since 10 July 2006)
глава правительства: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March 2000)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Антигуа и Барбуда глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Аргентина глава государства: Президент Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice Президент Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice Президент Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 October 2007 (next election to be held in 2011)
результаты выборов: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER elected president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 45%, Elisa CARRIO 23%, Roberto LAVAGNA 17%, Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%
Армения глава государства: Президент Serzh SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Tigran SARGSIAN (since 9 April 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 February 2008 (next to be held February 2013); prime minister appointed by the president based on majority или plurality support in parliament; the prime minister и Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program
результаты выборов: Serzh SARGSIAN elected president; percent of vote - Serzh SARGSIAN 52.9%, Levon TER-PETROSSIAN 21.5%, Artur BAGHDASARIAN 16.7%
Аруба глава государства: Queen BEATRIX of the Нидерланды (since 30 April 1980); represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 May 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30 October 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister и deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held in 2005 (next to be held by 2009)
результаты выборов: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - нет
Австралия глава государства: Queen Австралии ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Maj. Gen. (Ret.) Michael JEFFERY (since 11 August 2003)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Kevin RUDD (since 3 December 2007); Deputy Премьер Министр Julia GILLARD (since 3 December 2007)
cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to serve as government ministers
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general
Австрия глава государства: Президент Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) (since 8 July 2004)
глава правительства: Chancellor Alfred GUSENBAUER (SPOe) (since 11 January 2007); Vice Chancellor Wilhelm MOLTERER (OeVP) (since 11 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
выборы: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2010); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
результаты выборов: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER 47.6%
примечание: government coalition - SPOe и OeVP
Азербайджан глава государства: Президент Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Премьер Министр Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president и confirmed by the National Assembly
выборы: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held in October 2008); prime minister и first deputy prime minister appointed by the president и confirmed by the National Assembly
результаты выборов: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%
Багамские Острова, The глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Arthur D. HANNA (since 1 February 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Hubert A. INGRAHAM (since 4 May 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime minister's recommendation
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Бахрейн глава государства: King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр KHALIFA bin Salman al-Khalifa (since 1971); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman al-Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak al-Khalifa, Jawad al-ARAIDH
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Бангладеш глава государства: Президент Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002)
примечание: the country has a caretaker government until a general election is held; Iajuddin AHMED remains as Президент и Minister of Defense, и all other Cabinet portfolios are held by Caretaker Advisers (CAs); the Chief CA, Fakhruddin AHMED, is roughly equivalent to a prime minister
выборы: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election нет); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president
результаты выборов: Iajuddin AHMED declared president-elect by the Election Commission; he ran unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - нет
Барбадос глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since 1 June 1996)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр David THOMPSON (since 16 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Беларусь глава государства: Президент Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Sergey SIDORSKIY (since 19 December 2003); First Deputy Премьер Министр Vladimir SEMASHKO (since December 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place 23 June и 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits и allowed the president to run in a third election, which was held on 19 March 2006; prime minister и deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 82.6%, Aleksandr MILINKEVICH 6%, Aleksandr KOZULIN 2.3%; note - election marred by electoral fraud
Бельгия глава государства: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Yves LETERME (20 March 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers are formally appointed by the monarch
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary и constitutional; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch и then approved by parliament
Белиз глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG, Sr. (since 17 November 1993)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Dean BARROW (since 8 February 2008); Deputy Премьер Министр Gaspar VEGA (since 12 February 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
Бенин глава государства: Президент Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Thomas YAYI Boni (since 6 April 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); runoff election held 19 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2011)
результаты выборов: Thomas YAYI Boni elected president; percent of vote - Thomas YAYI Boni 74.5%, Adrien HOUNGBEDJI 25.5%
Бермуды глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir Richard GOZNEY (since 12 December 2007)
глава правительства: Premier Ewart BROWN (since 30 October 2006); Deputy Premier Paula COX
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
Бутан глава государства: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK (since 14 December 2006); note - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK abdicated the throne on 14 December 2006 и his son immediately succeeded him
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Jigme THINLEY (since 9 April 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed, five-year terms; note - there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members nominated by the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in July 1998 grant the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch with two-thirds vote; election of a new National Assembly occured in March 2008; the leader of the majority party is nominated as the prime minister
Боливия глава государства: Президент Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice Президент Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note - the president is both chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice Президент Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 18 December 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
результаты выборов: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma elected president; percent of vote - Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 53.7%; Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez 28.6%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 7.8%; Michiaki NAGATANI Morishit 6.5%; Felipe QUISPE Huanca 2.2%; Guildo ANGULA Cabrera 0.7%
Босния и Герцеговина глава государства: Chairman of the Presidency Haris SILAJDZIC (chairman since 6 March 2008; presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Bosniak); other members of the three-member presidency rotating (every eight months): Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Serb); и Zeljko KOMSIC (presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Croat)
глава правительства: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola SPIRIC (since 11 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the National House of Representatives
выборы: the three members of the presidency (один Bosniak, один Croat, один Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four лет); the chairmanship rotates every eight months и resumes where it left off following each national election; election last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in 2010); the chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the presidency и confirmed by the National House of Representatives
результаты выборов: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 53.3% of the votes for the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC received 39.6% of the votes for the Croat seat; Haris SILAJDZIC received 62.8% of the votes for the Bosniak seat
примечание: Президент of the Federation Боснии и Герцеговины: Borjana KRISTO (since 21 February 2007); Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC (since нет 2007) и Mirsad KEBO (since нет 2007); Президент of the Republika Srpska: Rajko KUSMANOVIC (since 28 December 2007)
Ботсвана глава государства: Президент Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice Президент Mompati MERAFHE (since 1 April 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice Президент Mompati MERAFHE (since 1 April 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009); vice president appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52%
Бразилия глава государства: Президент Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice Президент Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice Президент Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 1 October 2006 with runoff 29 October 2006 (next to be held 3 October 2010 и, if necessary, 31 October 2010)
результаты выборов: Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) reelected president - 60.83%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 39.17%
Британская территория в Индийском океане глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
глава правительства: Commissioner Leigh TURNER (since July 2006); Administrator Tony HUMPHRIES (since February 2005); note - both reside in the Великобритания и are represented by the officer commanding British Forces on Diego Garcia
cabinet: нет
выборы: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner и administrator appointed by the monarch
Британские Виргинские острова глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor David PEAREY (since 18 April 2006)
глава правительства: Premier Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 23 August 2007)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of the House of Assembly
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
Бруней глава государства: Sultan и Премьер Министр Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Sultan и Премьер Министр Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed и presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, и the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
выборы: none; the monarch is hereditary
Болгария глава государства: Президент Georgi PARVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice Президент Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Sergei STANISHEV (since 16 August 2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivaylo KALFIN, Daniel VULCHEV, и Emel ETEM (since 16 August 2005) и Meglena PLUGCHIEVA (since 25 April 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister и elected by the National Assembly
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 и 29 October 2006 (next to be held in 2011); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president и elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister и elected by the National Assembly
результаты выборов: Georgi PARVANOV reelected president; percent of vote - Georgi PARVANOV 77.3%, Volen SIDEROV 22.7%; Sergei STANISHEV elected prime minister, result of legislative vote - 168 to 67
Буркина Фасо глава государства: Президент Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Tertius ZONGO (since 4 June 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 November 2005 (next to be held in 2010); in April 2000, the constitution was amended reducing the presidential term from seven to five лет, enforceable as of 2005; prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature
результаты выборов: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president; percent of popular vote - Blaise COMPAORE 80.3%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 4.9%
Мьянма глава государства: Chairman of the State Peace и Development Council (SPDC) Sr. Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр, Lt. Gen THEIN SEIN (since 24 October 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet is overseen by SPDC; military junta assumed power 18 September 1988 under name State Law и Order Restoration Council (SLORC)
выборы: none
Бурунди глава государства: Президент Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice Президент Yves SAVINGUVU - Tutsi (since 9 November 2007); Second Vice Президент Gabriel NTISEZERANA - Hutu (since 9 February 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice Президент Yves SAVINGUVU - Tutsi (since 9 November 2007); Second Vice Президент Gabriel NTISEZERANA - Hutu (since 9 February 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
выборы: the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); note - the constitution adopted in February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by a two-thirds majority of the parliament; vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament
результаты выборов: Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president by the parliament by a vote of 151 to 9; note - the constitution adopted in February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by a two-thirds majority of the legislature
Камбоджа глава государства: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985) [co-prime minister from 1993 to 1997]; Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992); SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004); KEV PUT REAKSMEI (since 24 October 2006), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers in theory appointed by the monarch; in practice named by the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party или majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly и appointed by the king
Камерун глава государства: Президент Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ephraim INONI (since 8 December 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from proposals submitted by the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 October 2004 (next to be held by October 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Президент Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote - Paul BIYA 70.9%, John FRU NDI 17.4%, Adamou Ndam NJOYA 4.5%, Garga Haman ADJI 3.7%
Канада глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Michaelle JEAN (since 27 September 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Stephen HARPER (since 6 February 2006)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
Кабо-Верде глава государства: Президент Pedro Verona PIRES (since 22 March 2001)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 12 February 2006 (next to be held in February 2011); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly и appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Pedro PIRES reelected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 51.2%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 48.8%
Каймановы Острoва глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Stuart JACK (since 23 November 2005)
глава правительства: Leader of Правление Business Kurt TIBBETTS (since 18 May 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor, four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; the governor is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или coalition is appointed by the governor Leader of Правление Business
Центральноафриканская Республика глава государства: Президент Francois BOZIZE (since 15 March 2003 coup)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Faustin-Archange TOUADERA (since 22 January 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
выборы: under the new constitution, the president elected to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 13 March и 8 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010); prime minister appointed by the political party with a parliamentary majority
результаты выборов: Francois BOZIZE elected president; percent of second round balloting - Francois BOZIZE (KNK) 64.6%, Martin ZIGUELE (MLPC) 35.4%
Чад глава государства: Президент Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Youssof Saleh ABBAS (since 16 April 2008)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits и permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection
Чили глава государства: Президент Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Michelle BACHELET Jeria (since 11 March 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 11 December 2005, with runoff election held 15 January 2006 (next to be held in December 2009)
результаты выборов: Michelle BACHELET Jeria elected president; percent of vote - Michelle BACHELET Jeria 53.5%; Sebastian PINERA Echenique 46.5%
Китай глава государства: Президент HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003); Vice Президент XI Jinping (since 15 March 2008)
глава правительства: Premier WEN Jiabao (since 16 March 2003); Executive Vice Premier LI Keqiang (17 March 2008), Vice Premier HUI Liangyu (since 17 March 2003), Vice Premier ZHANG Deijiang (since 17 March 2008), и Vice Premier WANG Qishan (since 17 March 2008)
cabinet: State Council appointed by National Люди's Congress (NPC)
выборы: president и vice president elected by National Люди's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 15-17 March 2008 (next to be held in mid-March 2013); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National Люди's Congress
результаты выборов: HU Jintao elected president by National Люди's Congress with a total of 2,963 votes; XI Jinping elected vice president with a total of 2,919 votes
Рождества Остров глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general
глава правительства: Administrator Neil LUCAS (since 30 January 2006)
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general Австралии и represents the monarch и Австралия
Кокосовые Острова глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by the Australian governor general
глава правительства: Administrator (nonresident) Neil LUCAS (since 30 January 2006)
cabinet: нет
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general Австралии и represents the monarch и Австралия
Колумбия глава государства: Президент Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice Президент Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice Президент Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the three largest parties that supported Президент URIBE's reelection - the PSUN, PC, и CR - и independents
выборы: president и vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 May 2006 (next to be held in May 2010)
результаты выборов: Президент Alvaro URIBE Velez reelected president; percent of vote - Alvaro URIBE Velez 62%, Carlos GAVIRIA Diaz 22%, Horacio SERPA Uribe 12%, other 4%
Коморские Острова глава государства: Президент Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI (since 26 May 2006)
глава правительства: Президент Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI (since 26 May 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: as defined by the 2001 constitution, the presidency rotates every four лет among the elected presidents from the three main islands in the Union; election last held 14 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2010); prime minister appointed by the president; note - the post of prime minister has been vacant since May 2002
результаты выборов: Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI elected president; percent of vote - Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI 58.0%, Ibrahim HALIDI 28.3%, Mohamed DJAANFAMI 13.7%
Congo, Democratic Республика the глава государства: Президент Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001); note - following the assassination of his father, Joseph KABILA succeeded to the presidency which he retained through the 2003-06 transition; he was subsequently elected president in October 2006
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Antoine GIZENGA (since 30 December 2006);
cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president
выборы: under the new constitution the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 30 July 2006 with a second round held on 29 October 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: results of 29 October 2006 elections (second round); Joseph KABILA 58%, Jean-Pierre BEMBA Gombo 42%
примечание: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, following the latter's assassination in January 2001; negotiations with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional government in July 2003 with free elections held on 30 July 2006 и 29 October 2006 confirming Joseph KABILA as president
Congo, Республика the глава государства: Президент Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 25 October 1997, following the civil war in which he toppled elected president Pascal LISSOUBA);
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Isidore MVOUBA (since 7 January 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held in 2009)
результаты выборов: Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO reelected president; percent of vote - Denis SASSOU-NGUESSO 89.4%, Joseph Kignoumbi Kia MBOUNGOU 2.7%
Острова Кука глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Frederick GOODWIN (since 9 February 2001); Новая Зеландия High Commissioner Brian DONNELLY (since 21 February 2008), representative Новой Зеландии
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Jim MARURAI (since 14 December 2004); Deputy Премьер Министр Terepai MAOATE (since 9 August 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively responsible to Parliament
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; the Великобритания representative is appointed by the monarch; the Новая Зеландия high commissioner is appointed by the Новая Зеландия Правление; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes prime minister
Коралловые Острова administered from Canberra by the Australian Attorney-General's Department
Коста-Рика глава государства: Президент Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (since 8 May 2006); First Vice Президент Laura CHINCHILLA (since 8 May 2006); Second Vice Президент (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (since 8 May 2006); First Vice Президент Laura CHINCHILLA (since 8 May 2006); Second Vice Президент (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
выборы: president и vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 5 February 2006 (next to be held in February 2010)
результаты выборов: Oscar ARIAS Sanchez elected president; percent of vote - Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (PLN) 40.9%; Otton SOLIS (PAC) 39.8%, Otto GUEVARA Guth (PML) 8%, Ricardo TOLEDO (PUSC) 3%
Кот-д’Ивуар глава государства: Президент Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 October 2000)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Guillaume SORO (since 4 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the current power-sharing agreement the prime minister и the president share the authority to appoint ministers
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 26 October 2000 (next to be held 30 November 2008; elections were to be held in 2005 but have been repeatedly postponed by the government; the UN Security Council has extended the government's mandate); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other 2.2%
Хорватия глава государства: Президент Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ivo SANADER (since 9 December 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Jadranka KOSOR (since 23 December 2003) и Damir POLANCEC (since 15 February 2005), Djurdja ADLESIC (since 12 January 2008), Slobodan UZELAC (since 12 January 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister и approved by the parliamentary Assembly
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 January 2005 (next to be held in January 2010); the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president и then approved by the Assembly
результаты выборов: Stjepan MESIC reelected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC 66%, Jadranka KOSOR 34% in the second round
Куба глава государства: Президент of the Council of State и Президент of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 February 2008); First Vice Президент of the Council of State и First Vice Президент of the Council of Ministers Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura (since 24 February 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент of the Council of State и Президент of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (president since 24 February 2008); First Vice Президент of the Council of State и First Vice Президент of the Council of Ministers Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura (since 24 February 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State и appointed by the National Assembly или the 31-member Council of State, elected by the Assembly to act on its behalf when it is not in session
выборы: president и vice presidents elected by the National Assembly for a term of five лет; election last held 24 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
результаты выборов: Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Gen. Jose Ramon MACHADO Ventura elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%
Кипр глава государства: Президент Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
глава правительства: Президент Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS (since 28 February 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president и vice president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 17 и 24 February 2008 (next to be held in February 2013)
результаты выборов: Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS elected president; percent of vote (first round) - Ioannis KASOULIDIS 33.5%, Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 33.3%, Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 31.8%; (second round) Dimitris CHRISTOFIAS 53.4%, Ioannis KASOULIDIS 46.6%
примечание: Mehmet Ali TALAT became "president" of the "TRNC", 24 April 2005, после "presidential" elections on 17 April 2005; results - Mehmet Ali TALAT 55.6%, Dervis EROGLU 22.7%; Ferdi Sabit SOYER is "TRNC prime minister" и heads the Council of Ministers (cabinet) in coalition with "Foreign Minister и Deputy Премьер Министр" Turgay AVCI
Чешская республика глава государства: Президент Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Mirek TOPOLANEK (since 9 January 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Petr NECAS (since 9 January 2007), Martin BURSIK (since 9 January 2007), и Alexandr VONDRA (since 9 January 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held 15 February 2008 (после earlier elections held 8 и 9 February 2008 were inconclusive; next election to be held in February 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Vaclav KLAUS reelected president on 15 February 2008; Vaclav KLAUS 141 votes, Jan SVEJNAR 111 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
Дания глава государства: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 May 1968)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Anders Fogh RASMUSSEN (since 27 November 2001)
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch
Dhekelia глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
глава правительства: Administrator Air Vice-Marshal Richard LACEY (since 26 April 2006); note - reports to the British Ministry of Defense
выборы: none; the monarch is hereditary; the administrator is appointed by the monarch
Джибути глава государства: Президент Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Mohamed Dileita DILEITA (since 4 March 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2005 (next to be held by April 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 100%
Доминика глава государства: Президент Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (since October 2003)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Roosevelt SKERRIT (since 8 January 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 1 October 2003 (next to be held in October 2008); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Nicholas LIVERPOOL elected president; percent of legislative vote - нет%
Доминиканская республика глава государства: Президент Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August 2004); Vice Президент Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 August 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August 2004); Vice Президент Rafael ALBURQUERQUE de Castro (since 16 August 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held 16 May 2008 (next to be held in May 2012)
результаты выборов: Leonel FERNANDEZ reelected president; percent of vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ 53.6%, Miguel VARGAS 41%, Amable ARISTY less than 5%
Эквадор глава государства: Президент Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice Президент Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice Президент Lenin MORENO Garces (since 15 January 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: the president и vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 15 October 2006 with a runoff election on 26 November 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)
результаты выборов: Rafael CORREA Delgado elected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 56.7%; Alvaro NOBOA 43.3%
Египет глава государства: Президент Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ahmed Mohamed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the Люди's Assembly и the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011
результаты выборов: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
Сальвадор глава государства: Президент Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 June 2004); Vice Президент Ana Vilma Albanez DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 June 2004); Vice Президент Ana Vilma Albanez DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 21 March 2004 (next to be held in March 2009)
результаты выборов: Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez elected president; percent of vote - Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez 57.7%, Schafik HANDAL 35.6%, Hector SILVA 3.9%, other 2.8%
Экваториальная Гвинея глава государства: Президент Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ignacio Milan TANG (since 8 July 2008);
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 15 December 2002 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister и deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO 97.1%, Celestino Bonifacio BACALE 2.2%; elections marred by widespread fraud
Эритрея глава государства: Президент ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства и is head of the State Council и National Assembly
глава правительства: Президент ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993)
cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority; members appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the most recent и only election held 8 June 1993 (next election date uncertain as the National Assembly did not hold a presidential election in December 2001 as anticipated)
результаты выборов: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%, other 5%
Эстония глава государства: Президент Toomas Hendrik ILVES (since 9 October 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Andrus ANSIP (since 12 April 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament
выборы: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes после three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 23 September 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2011); prime minister nominated by the president и approved by Parliament
результаты выборов: Toomas Hendrik ILVES elected president on 23 September 2006 by a 345-member electoral assembly; ILVES received 174 votes to incumbent Arnold RUUTEL's 162; remaining 9 ballots left blank или invalid
Эфиопия глава государства: Президент GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр MELES Zenawi (since August 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister и approved by the House of Люди's Representatives
выборы: president elected by the House of Люди's Representatives for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 9 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections
результаты выборов: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of Люди's Representatives - 79%
Европейское сообщество chief of union: Президент of the European Commission Jose Manuel DURAO BARROSO (since 22 November 2004)
cabinet: European Commission (composed of 27 members, один from each member country; each commissioner responsible for один или more policy areas)
выборы: the president of the European Commission is designated by member governments и is confirmed by the European Parliament; working from member state recommendations, the Commission president then assembles a "college" of Commission members; the European Parliament confirms the entire Commission for a five-year term; the last confirmation process was held 18 November 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
результаты выборов: European Parliament approved the European Commission by an approval vote of 449 to 149 with 82 abstentions
примечание: the European Council brings together heads of state и government и the president of the European Commission и meets at least four times a year; its aim is to provide the impetus for the major political issues relating to European integration и to issue general policy guidelines
Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
глава правительства: Governor Alan HUCKLE (since 25 August 2006); Chief Executive Dr. Tim THOROGOOD (since 3 January 2008)
cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive и the financial secretary), и the governor
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Фарерские Острова глава государства: Queen MARGRETHE II Дании (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Birgit KLEIS, chief administrative officer (since 1 November 2001)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Joannes EIDESGAARD (since 3 February 2004)
cabinet: Landsstyri appointed by the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the Faroese Parliament; election last held 20 January 2004 (next to be held no later than January 2008)
результаты выборов: Joannes EIDESGAARD elected prime minister; percent of parliamentary vote - нет
Фиджи глава государства: Президент Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda (since 18 July 2000); note - ILOILOVATU was reaffirmed as president by the Great Council of Chiefs in a statement issued on 22 December, и reappointed by the coup leader Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA in January 2007
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Laisenia QARASE (since 10 September 2000); note - although QARASE is still the legal prime minister, he has been confined to his home island; the president appointed Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA interim prime minister under the military regime
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament и is responsible to Parliament; note - coup leader Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA has appointed an interim cabinet
выборы: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president; election last held 8 March 2006
результаты выборов: Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs; percent of vote - нет
Финляндия глава государства: Президент Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003); Deputy Премьер Министр Jyrki KATAINEN (since 19 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of State или Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2012); the president appoints the prime minister и deputy prime minister from the majority party или the majority coalition после parliamentary elections и the parliament must approve the appointment; Премьер Министр VANHANEN reelected 17 April 2007
результаты выборов: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN и NIINISTO was held 29 January 2006 - HALONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2%; Matti VANHANEN relected prime minister; election results 121-71
примечание: government coalition - Kesk, KOK, VIHR, и SFP
Франция глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Francois FILLON (since 17 May 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (changed from seven-year term in October 2000); election last held 22 April и 6 May 2007 (next to be held spring 2012); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority и appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Nicolas SARKOZY wins the election; First Round: percent of vote - Nicolas SARKOZY 31.18%, Segolene ROYAL 25.87%, Francois BAYROU 18.57%, Jean-Marie LE PEN 10.44%, others 13.94%; Second Round: SARKOZY 53.1% и ROYAL 46.9%
Французская Полинезия глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Adolphe COLRAT (since 7 July 2008)
глава правительства: Президент Французской Полинезии Gaston TONG SANG (since 15 April 2008); Президент of the Territorial Assembly Antony GEROS (since 9 May 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of the Territorial Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers
выборы: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the territorial government и the president of the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly for five-year terms (no term limits)
Французские Южные и Антарктические Территории глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007), represented by Senior Administrator Eric PILLOTON (10 April 2007)
Габон глава государства: Президент El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba (since 2 December 1967)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Jean Eyeghe NDONG (since 20 January 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 27 November 2005 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Президент El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba reelected; percent of vote - El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba 79.2%, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU 13.6%, Zacharie MYBOTO 6.6%
Гамбия глава государства: Президент Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October 1996); note - from 1994 to 1996 he was chairman of the Junta; Vice Президент Isatou NJIE-SAIDY (since 20 March 1997); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH (since 18 October 1996); Vice Президент Isatou NJIE-SAIDY (since 20 March 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 22 September 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
результаты выборов: Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH reelected president; percent of vote - Yahya A. J. J. JAMMEH 67.3%, Ousainou DARBOE 26.6%, Halifa SALLAH 6.0%
Грузия глава государства: Президент Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 January 2004); the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства for the power ministries: state security (включая interior) и defense
глава правительства: Президент Mikheil SAAKASHVILI (since 25 January 2004); Премьер Министр Vladimir "Lado" GURGENIDZE (since 19 November 2007); the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства for the power ministries: state security (включая interior) и defense; the prime minister is head of the remaining ministries of government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 5 January 2008 (next to be held January 2013)
результаты выборов: Mikheil SAAKASHVILI reelected president; percent of vote - Mikheil SAAKASHVILI 53.5%, Levan GACHECHILADZE 25.7%, Badri PATARKATSISHVILI 7.1%
Германия глава государства: Президент Horst KOEHLER (since 1 July 2004)
глава правительства: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet или Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor
выборы: president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Assembly и an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 May 2004 (next scheduled for 23 May 2009); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; Bundestag vote for Chancellor last held 22 November 2005 (next will follow the national elections to be held by autumn 2009)
результаты выборов: Horst KOEHLER elected president; received 604 votes of the Federal Convention against 589 for Gesine SCHWAN; Angela MERKEL elected chancellor; vote by Federal Assembly 397 to 202 with 12 abstentions
Гана глава государства: Президент John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice Президент Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice Президент Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2008)
результаты выборов: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president in election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 52.4%, John ATTA-MILLS 44.6%
Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir Robert FULTON (since 27 October 2006)
глава правительства: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Греция глава государства: Президент Karolos PAPOULIAS (since 12 March 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Konstandinos (Kostas) KARAMANLIS (since 7 March 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 February 2005 (next to be held by February 2010); according to the Greek Constitution, presidents may only serve two terms; president appoints leader of the party securing plurality of vote in election to become prime minister и form a government
результаты выборов: Karolos PAPOULIAS elected president; number of parliamentary votes, 279 out of 300
Гренландия глава государства: Queen MARGRETHE II Дании (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Soren MOLLER (since April 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Hans ENOKSEN (since 14 December 2002)
cabinet: На главную Rule Правление is elected by the parliament (Landstinget) on the basis of the strength of parties
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; prime minister is elected by parliament (usually the leader of the majority party);
результаты выборов: Hans ENOKSEN reelected prime minister
примечание: government coalition - Siumut и Inuit Ataqatigiit
Гренада глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Daniel WILLIAMS (since 9 August 1996)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Tillman THOMAS (since 9 July 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Гуам глава государства: Президент George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice Президент Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)
глава правительства: Governor Felix P. CAMACHO (since 6 January 2003); Lieutenant Governor Dr. Michael W. CRUZ (since 1 January 2007)
cabinet: heads of executive departments; appointed by the governor with the consent of the Гуам legislature
выборы: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Гуам, do not vote in elections for US president и vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic и Republican presidential primary elections; governor и lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (can serve two consecutive terms, then must wait a full term before running again); election last held 7 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2010)
результаты выборов: Felix P. CAMACHO reelected governor; Dr. Michael W. CRUZ elected lieutenant governor; percent of vote - нет
Гватемала глава государства: Президент Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice Президент Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice Президент Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 September 2007; runoff held 4 November 2007 (next to be held September 2011)
результаты выборов: Alvaro COLOM Caballeros elected president; percent of vote - Alvaro COLOM Caballeros 52.8%, Otto PEREZ Molina 47.2%
Гернси: коронная земля Великобритании глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Fabian MALBON (since 28 October 2005)
глава правительства: Chief Minister Lyndon TROTT (since 1 May 2008)
cabinet: Policy Council elected by the States of Deliberation
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister is elected by States of Deliberation
результаты выборов: Lyndon TROTT elected chief minister, percent of vote of the States of Deliberation нет
Гвинея глава государства: Президент Lansana CONTE (head of military government since 5 April 1984, elected president 19 December 1993)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ahmed Tidiane SOUARE (since 23 May 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); candidate must receive a majority of the votes cast to be elected president; election last held 21 December 2003 (next to be held in December 2010); the prime minister is appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Lansana CONTE reelected president; percent of vote - Lansana CONTE 95.3%, Mamadou Bhoye BARRY 4.6%
Гвинея-Бисау глава государства: Президент Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA (since 1 October 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Carlos CORREIA
cabinet: нет
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 July 2005 (next to be held in 2010); prime minister appointed by the president после consultation with party leaders in the legislature
результаты выборов: Joao Bernardo VIEIRA elected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Joao Bernardo VIEIRA 52.4%, Malam Bacai SANHA 47.6%
Гвиана глава государства: Президент Bharrat JAGDEO (since 11 August 1999); note - assumed presidency после resignation of Президент Janet JAGAN и was reelected in 2001, и again in 2006
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Samuel HINDS (since October 1992, except for a period as chief of state после the death of Президент Cheddi JAGAN on 6 March 1997)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president, responsible to the legislature
выборы: president elected by popular vote as leader of a party list in parliamentary elections, which must be held at least every five лет (no term limits); elections last held 28 August 2006 (next to be held by August 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Президент Bharrat JAGDEO reelected; percent of vote 54.6%
Гаити глава государства: Президент Rene PREVAL (since 14 May 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Michele PIERRE-LOUIS (since 31 July 2008); note - PIERRE-LOUIS has been ratified as the new prime minister by the National Assembly, but must stand a separate confidence vote on her government и political program
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 7 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly
результаты выборов: Rene PREVAL elected president; percent of vote - Rene PREVAL 51%
Ватикан глава государства: Pope BENEDICT XVI (since 19 April 2005)
глава правительства: Secretary of State Cardinal Tarcisio BERTONE (since 15 September 2006)
cabinet: Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City appointed by the pope
выборы: pope elected for life by the College of Cardinals; election last held 19 April 2005 (next to be held после the death of the current pope); secretary of state appointed by the pope
результаты выборов: Joseph RATZINGER elected Pope BENEDICT XVI
Гондурас глава государства: Президент Manuel ZELAYA Rosales (since 27 January 2006); Vice Президент Elvin Ernesto SANTOS Ordonez (since 27 January 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Manuel ZELAYA Rosales (since 27 January 2006); Vice Президент Elvin Ernesto SANTOS Ordonez (since 27 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 27 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2009)
результаты выборов: Manuel ZELAYA Rosales elected president - 49.8%, Porfirio "Pepe" LOBO Sosa 46.1%, other 4.1%
Гонконг глава государства: Президент Китая HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)
глава правительства: Chief Executive Donald TSANG (since 24 June 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of 15 official members и 16 non-official members
выборы: chief executive elected for five-year term by 800-member electoral committee; last held on 25 March 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
результаты выборов: Donald TSANG elected chief executive receiving 84.1% of the vote of the election committee; Alan LEONG received 15.9%
Венгрия глава государства: Президент Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister и appointed и relieved of their duties by the president
выборы: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004
результаты выборов: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12
примечание: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds или a simple majority in the third round
Исландия глава государства: Президент Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON (since 1 August 1996)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Geir H. HAARDE (since 7 June 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
выборы: president, largely a ceremonial post, is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 26 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister
результаты выборов: Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON 85.6%, Baldur AGUSTSSON 12.5%, Astthor MAGNUSSON 1.9%
Индия глава государства: Президент Pratibha PATIL (since 25 July 2007); Vice Президент Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Manmohan SINGH (since 22 May 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament и the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 21 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 12 August 2002 (next to be held August 2007); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections; election last held April - May 2004 (next to be held May 2009)
результаты выборов: Pratibha PATIL elected president; percent of vote - 65.8%; Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT - 34.2%
Индонeзия глава государства: Президент Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice Президент Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice Президент Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president и vice president were elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 September 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
результаты выборов: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%
Иран глава государства: Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989)
глава правительства: Президент Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD (since 3 August 2005); First Vice Президент Parviz DAVUDI (since 11 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president with legislative approval; the Supreme Leader has some control over appointments to the more sensitive ministries
примечание: also considered part of the Executive branch of government are three oversight bodies: 1) Assembly of Experts (Majles-Khebregan), a popularly elected body charged with determining the succession of the Supreme Leader, reviewing his performance, и deposing him if deemed necessary; 2) Expediency Council или the Council for the Discernment of Expediency (Majma-e-Tashkise-Maslahat-e-Nezam) exerts supervisory authority over the executive, judicial, и legislative branches и resolves legislative issues on which the Majles и the Council of Guardians disagree и since 1989 has been used to advise national religious leaders on matters of national policy; in 2005 the Council's powers were expanded to act as a supervisory body for the government; 3) Council of Guardians of the Constitution или Council of Guardians или Guardians Council (Shora-ye Negaban-e Qanun-e Assassi) determines whether proposed legislation is both constitutional и faithful to Islamic law, vets candidates for suitability, и supervises national elections
выборы: Supreme Leader is appointed for life by the Assembly of Experts; president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term и third nonconsecutive term); last held 17 June 2005 with a two-candidate runoff on 24 June 2005 (next presidential election slated for 2009)
результаты выборов: Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD elected president; percent of vote - Mahmud AHMADI-NEJAD 62%, Ali Akbar Hashemi-RAFSANJANI 36%
Ирак глава государства: Президент Jalal TALABANI (since 6 April 2005); Vice Presidents Adil ABD AL-MAHDI и Tariq al-HASHIMI (since 22 April 2006); note - the president и vice presidents comprise the Presidency Council)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 May 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Barham SALIH (since 20 May 2006)и Rafi al-ISSAWI (since 19 July 2008)
cabinet: 34 ministers appointed by the Presidency Council, plus Премьер Министр Nuri al-MALIKI и Deputy Prime Ministers Barham SALIH и Rafi al-ISSAWI
выборы: held 15 December 2005 to elect a 275-member Council of Representatives
Ирландия глава государства: Президент Mary MCALEESE (since 11 November 1997)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Brian COWEN (since 7 May 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with previous nomination by the prime minister и approval of the House of Representatives
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 31 October 1997 (next scheduled for October 2011); note - Mary MCALEESE appointed to a second term when no other candidate qualified for the 2004 presidential election; prime minister (taoiseach) nominated by the House of Representatives и appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Mary MCALEESE elected president; percent of vote - Mary MCALEESE 44.8%, Mary BANOTTI 29.6%
примечание: government coalition - Fianna Fail, the партия зеленых, the Progressive Democrats, и independent members of Parliament
Остров Мэн глава государства: Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Paul K. HADDACKS (since 17 October 2005)
глава правительства: Chief Minister Tony BROWN (since 14 December 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor appointed by the monarch for a five-year term; the chief minister is elected by the Tynwald; election last held 14 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2008)
результаты выборов: House of Keys speaker Tony BROWN elected chief minister by the Tynwald
Израиль глава государства: Президент Shimon PERES (since 15 July 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ehud OLMERT (since May 2006); Deputy Премьер Министр Tzipora "Tzipi" LIVNI (since May 2006); Ehud OLMERT won the right to свинец the government when his Kadima Party won 29 seats in elections held on 28 March 2006
cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister и approved by the Knesset
выборы: president is largely a ceremonial role и is elected by the Knesset for a seven-year term (один-term limit); election last held 13 June 2007 (next to be held in 2014 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president assigns a Knesset member - traditionally the leader of the largest party - the task of forming a governing coalition
примечание: government coalition - Kadima, Labor Party, GIL (Pensioners), и SHAS
результаты выборов: Shimon PERES elected president; number of votes in first round - Shimon PERES 58, Reuven RIVLIN 37, Colette AVITAL 21; PERES elected president in second round with 86 votes (unopposed)
Италия глава государства: Президент Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 May 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Silvio BERLUSCONI (referred to in Италия as the president of the Council of Ministers) (since 8 May 2008) note - in Италия the prime minister is referred to as the president of the Council of Ministers
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister и approved by the president
выборы: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament и 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 10 May 2006 (next to be held in May 2013); prime minister appointed by the president и confirmed by parliament
результаты выборов: Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the fourth round of voting; electoral college vote - 543
Ямайка глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Kenneth O. HALL (since 15 February 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Bruce GOLDING (since 11 September 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is recommended by the prime minister
Япония глава государства: Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Yasuo FUKUDA (since 26 September 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
выборы: Diet designates prime minister; constitution requires that prime minister commands parliamentary majority; following legislative elections, leader of majority party или leader of majority coalition in House of Representatives usually becomes prime minister; monarch is hereditary
результаты выборов: FUKUDA elected prime minister with 338 of 477 votes cast in the House of Representatives; he received 106 of 240 votes cast in the House of Councillors; vote of House of Representatives prevailed
Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Andrew RIDGEWAY (since 14 June 2006)
глава правительства: Chief Minister Frank WALKER (since December 2005); Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since February 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet (since December 2005)
выборы: ministers of the Cabinet including the chief minister are elected by the Assembly of States; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor и bailiff appointed by the monarch
Иордания глава государства: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Prince HUSSEIN (born 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II, is considered to be first in line to inherit the throne
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Nader al-DAHABI (since 25 November 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Казахстан глава государства: Президент Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990, elected president 1 December 1991)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Karim MASIMOV (since 10 January 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Umirzak SHUKEYEV (since 27 August 2007) и Yerbol ORYNBAYEV (since 29 October 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 4 December 2005 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister и first deputy prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Nursultan A. NAZARBAYEV 91.1%, Zharmakhan A. TUYAKBAI 6.6%, Alikhan M. BAIMENOV 1.6%
примечание: Президент NAZARBAYEV arranged a referendum in 1995 that extended his term of office и expanded his presidential powers: only he can initiate constitutional amendments, appoint и dismiss the government, dissolve Parliament, call referenda at his discretion, и appoint administrative heads of regions и cities
Кения глава государства: Президент Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice Президент Stephene Kalonzo MUSYOKA (since 10 January 2008);
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Raila Amolo ODINGA (since 17 April 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% или more of the vote in at least five Кении's seven provinces и один area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2012); vice president appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Президент Mwai KIBAKI reelected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 46%, Raila ODINGA 44%, Kalonzo MUSYOKA 9%
Кирибати глава государства: Президент Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice Президент Teima ONORIO; note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Anote TONG (since 10 July 2003); Vice Президент Teima ONORIO
cabinet: 12-member cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the House of Parliament
выборы: the House of Parliament chooses the presidential candidates from among its members и then those candidates compete in a general election; president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held 17 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Anote TONG 63.7%, Nabuti MWEMWENIKARAWA 32.9%
Северная Корея глава государства: KIM Jong Il (since July 1994); note - on 3 September 2003, rubberstamp Supreme Люди's Assembly (SPA) reelected KIM Jong Il chairman of the National Defense Commission, a position accorded nation's "highest administrative authority"; SPA reelected KIM Yong Nam president of its Presidium also with responsibility of representing state и receiving diplomatic credentials
глава правительства: Premier KIM Yong Il (since 11 April 2007); Vice Premiers KWAK Pom Gi (since 5 September 1998), JON Sung Hun (since 3 September 2003), RO Tu Chol (since 3 September 2003), THAE Jong Su (since 16 October 2007)
cabinet: Naegak (cabinet) members, except for Minister of Люди's Armed Forces, are appointed by SPA
выборы: last held in September 2003 (next to be held in September 2008)
результаты выборов: KIM Jong Il и KIM Yong Nam were only nominees for positions и ran unopposed
Южная Корея глава государства: Президент LEE Myung-bak (since 25 February 2008)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр HAN Seung-soo (since 29 February 2008)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the president on the prime minister's recommendation
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 19 December 2007 (next to be held on in December 2012); prime minister appointed by president with consent of National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by president on prime minister's recommendation
результаты выборов: ROH Moo-hyun elected president on 19 December 2002; percent of vote - ROH Moo-hyun (MDP) 48.9%; LEE Hoi-chang (GNP) 46.6%; others 4.5%; LEE Myung-bak elected president on 19 December 2007; percent of vote - LEE Myung-bak (GNP) 48.7%; CHUNG Dong-young (UNDP) 26.1%); LEE Hoi-chang (independent) 15.1; others 10.1%
Косовo глава государства: Президент Fatmir SEJDIU (since 10 February 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Hashim THACI (since 9 January 2008)
cabinet: ministers; elected by the Косовo Assembly
выборы: the president is elected for a five-year term by the Косовo Assembly; election last held 9 January 2008 (next to be held by in 2013); the prime minister is elected by the Косовo Assembly
результаты выборов: Fatmir SEJDIU reelected president; first round: Fatmir SEDIU 62, Naim MALOKU 37; second round: Fatmir SEDIU 61, Naim MALOKU 37; и Hashim THACI elected to be prime minister by the Assembly
Кювейт глава государства: Amir SABAH al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah (since 29 January 2006); Crown Prince NAWAF al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah
глава правительства: Премьер Министр NASIR MUHAMMAD al-Ahmad al-Sabah (since 3 April 2007); First Deputy Премьер Министр JABIR Mubarak al-Hamad al-Sabah (since 9 February 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers MUHAMMAD al-Sabah al-Salim al-Sabah (since 9 February 2006) и Faysal al-HAJJI (since 5 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister и approved by the Amir
выборы: none; the amir is hereditary; the amir appoints the prime minister и deputy prime ministers
Киргизия глава государства: Президент Kurmanbek BAKIEV (since 14 August 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Igor CHUDINOV (since 24 December 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president; ministers in charge of defense и security, appointed solely by the president
выборы: Kurmanbek BAKIEV elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 July 2005 (next scheduled for 2010); prime minister nominated by the parliamentary party holding more than 50% of the seats; if no such party exists, the president selects the party that will nominate a prime minister
результаты выборов: Kurmanbek BAKIEV elected president; percent of vote - Kurmanbek BAKIEV 88.6%, Tursunbai BAKIR-UULU 3.9%, other candidates 7.5%
Лаоc глава государства: Президент Lt. Gen. CHOUMMALI Saignason (since 8 June 2006); Vice Президент BOUN-GNANG Volachit (since 8 June 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр BOUASONE Bouphavanh (since 8 June 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Maj. Gen. ASANG Laoli (since May 2002), Maj. Gen. DOUANGCHAI Phichit (since 8 June 2006), SOMSAVAT Lengsavat (since 26 February 1998), и THONGLOUN Sisoulit (since 27 March 2001)
cabinet: Ministers appointed by president, approved by National Assembly
выборы: president и vice president elected by National Assembly for five-year terms; election last held 8 June 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister nominated by president и elected by National Assembly for five-year term
результаты выборов: CHOUMMALI Saignason elected president; BOUN-GNANG Volachit elected vice president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100%; BOUASONE Bouphavanh elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 97%
Латвия глава государства: Президент Valdis ZATLERS (since 8 July 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ivars GODMANIS (since 20 December 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister и appointed by Parliament
выборы: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 31 May 2007 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by Parliament
результаты выборов: Valdis ZATLERS elected president; parliamentary vote - Valdis ZATLERS 58, Aivars ENDZINS 39
Ливан глава государства: Президент Michel SULAYMAN (as of 25 May 2008)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Fuad SINIORA (since 30 June 2005); Deputy Премьер Министр Elias MURR (since April 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president и members of the National Assembly
выборы: president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 25 May 2008 (next to be held in 2014); the prime minister и deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly
результаты выборов: Michel SULAYMAN elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 for, 6 abstentions, 3 invalidated
Лесото глава государства: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996); note - King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 May 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet
выборы: according to the constitution, the leader of the majority party in the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister; the monarch is hereditary, but, under the terms of the constitution that came into effect после the March 1993 election, the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive или legislative powers; under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to depose the monarch, determine who is next in the line of succession, или who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age
Либерия глава государства: Президент Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF (since 16 January 2006); note - the Президент is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF (since 16 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president и confirmed by the Senate
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 November 2005 (next to be held in 2011)
результаты выборов: Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF elected president; percent of vote, second round - Ellen JOHNSON SIRLEAF 59.6%, George WEAH 40.4%
Либия глава государства: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state
глава правительства: Secretary of the General Люди's Committee (Премьер Министр) al-Baghdadi Ali al-MAHMUDI (since 5 March 2006)
cabinet: General Люди's Committee established by the General Люди's Congress
выборы: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; глава правительства elected by the General Люди's Congress; election last held March 2006 (next to be held нет)
результаты выборов: нет
Лихтенштейн глава государства: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state
глава правительства: Head of Правление (Премьер Министр) Otmar HASLER (since 5 April 2001); Deputy Head of Правление (Deputy Премьер Министр) Klaus TSCHUETSCHER (since 21 April 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the глава правительства by the monarch и the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the deputy глава правительства by the monarch if there is a coalition government
Литва глава государства: Президент Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Gediminas KIRKILAS (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 и 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
результаты выборов: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Gediminas KIRKILAS approved by Parliament 85-13 with five abstentions
Люксембург глава государства: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Премьер Министр Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister и appointed by the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
примечание: government coalition - CSV и LSAP
Macau глава государства: Президент Китая HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)
глава правительства: Chief Executive Edmund HO Hau-wah (since 20 December 1999)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of один government secretary, three legislators, four businessmen, один pro-Beijing unionist, и один pro-Beijing educator
выборы: chief executive chosen by a 300-member Election Committee for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 29 August 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
результаты выборов: Edmund HO Hau-wah reelected received 296 votes; three members submitted blank ballots; один member was absent
Македония глава государства: Президент Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, и several small parties
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April и 28 April 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections
результаты выборов: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
Мадагаскар глава государства: Президент Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Charles RABEMANANJARA (25 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: percent of vote - Marc RAVALOMANANA 54.8%, Jean LAHINIRIKO 11.7%, Roland RATSIRAKA 10.1%, Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO 9.1%, Norbert RATSIRAHONANA 4.2%, Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO 4.2%, Elia RAVELOMANANTSOA 2.6%, Pety RAKOTONIAINA 1.7%, other 1.6%
Малави глава государства: Президент Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 May 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Bingu wa MUTHARIKA (since 24 May 2004)
cabinet: 46-member Cabinet named by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 20 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2009)
результаты выборов: Bingu wa MUTHARIKA elected president; percent of vote - Bingu wa MUTHARIKA 35.9%, John TEMBO 27.1%, Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA 25.7%, Brown MPINGANJIRA 8.7%, Justin MALEWEZI 2.5%
Малазия глава государства: Paramount Ruler Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin (since 13 December 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр ABDULLAH bin Ahmad Badawi (since 31 October 2003); Deputy Премьер Министр Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (since 7 January 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament with consent of the paramount ruler
выборы: paramount ruler elected by и from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states for five-year terms; election last held on 3 November 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister designated from among the members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins a plurality of seats in the House of Representatives becomes prime minister
результаты выборов: Sultan MIZAN Zainal Abidin elected paramount ruler
примечание: position of paramount ruler is primarily ceremonial; in practice, selection is based on principle of rotation among rulers of states
Мальдивы глава государства: Президент Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president nominated by the Majlis; nomination must be ratified by a national referendum (at least a 51% approval margin is required); president elected for a five-year term; election last held 17 October 2003 (next to be held in 2008)
результаты выборов: Президент Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected in referendum held 17 October 2003; percent of popular vote - Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM 90.3%
Мали глава государства: Президент Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Modibo SIDIBE (since 28 September 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
Мальта глава государства: Президент Edward FENECH ADAMI (since 4 April 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Lawrence GONZI (since 23 March 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by the House of Representatives for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 March 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president for a five-year term; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
результаты выборов: Eddie FENECH ADAMI elected president; House of Representatives vote - 33 out of 65 votes
Маршалловы Острова глава государства: Президент Litokwa TOMEING (since 7 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Litokwa TOMEING (since 7 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of the legislature
выборы: president elected by Parliament from among its members for a four-year term; election last held 7 January 2008 (next to be held in 2012)
результаты выборов: Litokwa TOMEING elected president; TOMEING received 18 votes to 15 for incumbent Kessai Hesa NOTE
Мавритания глава государства: Gen. Mohamed Ould Abdel AZIZ who led a coup that deposed the democratically elected Президент Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDELLAHI on 6 August 2008
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Moulaye Ould Mohamed LAGHDAF (since 14 August 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held 11 March 2007 with a runoff between the two leading candidates held on 25 March 2007 (next to be held 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: percent of vote - (second round) Sidi Ould Cheikh ABDELLAHI 52.8%, Ahmed Ould DADDAH 47.2%
Маврикий глава государства: Президент Sir Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 7 October 2003); Vice Президент Abdool Raouf BUNDHUN (since 25 February 2002)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM (since 5 July 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: president и vice president elected by the National Assembly for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 25 February 2002 (next to be held in May 2008); prime minister и deputy prime minister appointed by the president, responsible to the National Assembly
результаты выборов: Karl OFFMANN elected president и Raouf BUNDHUN elected vice president; percent of vote by the National Assembly - нет%; note - Karl OFFMANN stepped down on 30 September 2003
Майотта: заморская территория Франции глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Prefect Denis ROBIN (since 28 July 2008)
глава правительства: Президент of the General Council Said Omar OILI (since 8 April 2004)
cabinet: нет
выборы: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; president of the General Council elected by the members of the General Council for a six-year term; next election to be held in 2010
Мексика глава государства: Президент Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 2 July 2006 (next to be held 1 July 2012)
результаты выборов: Felipe CALDERON elected president; percent of vote - Felipe CALDERON 35.89%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR 35.31%, Roberto MADRAZO 22.26%, other 6.54%
Микронезия глава государства: Президент Emanuel MORI (since 11 May 2007); Vice Президент Alik L. ALIK (since 11 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Emanuel MORI (since 11 May 2007); Vice Президент Alik L. ALIK (since 11 May 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet включая the vice president и the heads of the eight executive departments
выборы: president и vice president elected by Congress from among the four senators at large for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 May 2007 (next to be held May 2011); note - a proposed constitutional amendment to establish popular elections for president и vice president failed
результаты выборов: Emanuel MORI elected president; percent of Congress vote - нет; Alik L. ALIK elected vice president; percent of Congress vote - нет
Молдавия глава государства: Президент Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Zinaida GRECEANII (since 31 March 2008); First Deputy Премьер Министр Igor DODON (since 31 March 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
выборы: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program и entire cabinet; prime minister designated 21 March 2008; cabinet received a vote of confidence 31 March 2008
результаты выборов: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Zinaida GRECEANII designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 56 of 101
Монако глава государства: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
глава правительства: Minister of State Jean-Paul PROUST (since 1 June 2005)
cabinet: Council of Правление is under the authority of the monarch
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Правление
Монголия глава государства: Президент Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Sanjaa BAYAR (since 22 November 2007); Deputy Премьер Министр Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 6 December 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president и confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
выборы: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural и elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party или majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural
результаты выборов: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10
Монтенегро глава государства: Президент Filip VUJANOVIC (since 11 May 2003)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 29 February 2008)
cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet
выборы: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 April 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
результаты выборов: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; Filip VUJANOVIC 51.89%, Andrija MANDIC 19.55%, Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC 16.64%, Srdan MILIC 11.92%
Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Peter A. WATERWORTH (since 27 July 2007)
глава правительства: Chief Minister Lowell LEWIS (since 2 June 2006)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the chief minister, three other ministers, the attorney general, и the finance secretary
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes chief minister
Мороккo глава государства: King MOHAMED VI (since 30 July 1999)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Abbas EL FASSI (since 19 September 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch following legislative elections
Мозамбик глава государства: Президент Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
Намибия глава государства: Президент Hifikepunye POHAMBA (since 21 March 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Nahas ANGULA (since 21 March 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 November 2004 (next to be held in November 2009)
результаты выборов: Hifikepunye POHAMBA elected president; percent of vote - Hifikepunye POHAMBA 76.4%, Den ULENGA 7.3%, Katuutire KAURA 5.1%, Kuaima RIRUAKO 4.2%, Justus GAROEB 3.8%, other 3.2%
Науру глава государства: Президент Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Marcus STEPHEN (since 19 December 2007); note - Президент Ludwig SCOTTY defeated in a no confidence vote in parliament on 19 December 2007
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of Parliament
выборы: president elected by Parliament for a three-year term; election last held 19 December 2007 (next to be held in 2010)
результаты выборов: нет
Непал глава государства: Президент Ram Baran YADAV (as of 23 July 2008); Vice Президент Paramananda JHA (as of 23 July 2008)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Girija Prasad KOIRALA (as of 30 April 2006; note - KOIRALA announced his resignation on 26 June 2008)
cabinet: selected by the prime minister
выборы: president elected by Parliament; term нет; election last held 21 July 2008
результаты выборов: Ram Baran YADAV elected president by the Constituent Assembly in a second round of voting on 21 July 2008; Ram Baran YADAV 308, Ram Jaja Prasad SINGH 282
Нидерланды глава государства: Queen BEATRIX (since 30 April 1980); Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER (born 27 April 1967), son of the monarch
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Jan Peter BALKENENDE (since 22 July 2002); Deputy Prime Ministers Wouter BOS (since 22 February 2007) и Andre ROUVOET (since 22 February 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party или leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch
примечание: there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, и councilors that provides consultations to the cabinet on legislative и administrative policy
Нидерландские Антильские о-ва глава государства: Queen BEATRIX of the Нидерланды (since 30 April 1980); represented by Governor General Frits GOEDGEDRAG (since 1 July 2002)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Emily de JONGH-ELHAGE (since 26 March 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Staten (legislature)
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a six-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually elected prime minister by the Staten; election last held 27 January 2006 (next to be held by 2010)
примечание: government coalition - PAR, PNP, DP-St. M, UPB, WIPM Saba, DP-St. E
Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by High Commissioner Yves DASSONVILLE (since 9 November 2007)
глава правительства: Президент of the Правление Harold MARTIN (since 7 August 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet consisting of 11 members elected from и by the Territorial Congress
выборы: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the government elected by the members of the Territorial Congress for a five-year term (no term limits); note - last election held 7 August 2007 when Harold MARTIN was elected following the resignation of Marie-Noelle THEMEREAU as president on 24 July 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
Новая Зеландия глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999); Deputy Премьер Министр Michael CULLEN (since July 2002)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Никарагуа глава государства: Президент Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice Президент Jaime MORALES Carazo (since 10 January 2007); note - the president is both chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra (since 10 January 2007); Vice Президент Jaime MORALES Carazo (since 10 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term so long as it is not consecutive); election last held 5 November 2006 (next to be held by November 2011)
результаты выборов: Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra elected president - 38.07%, Eduardo MONTEALEGRE 29%, Jose RIZO 26.21%, Edmundo JARQUIN 6.44%
Нигер глава государства: Президент Mamadou TANDJA (since 22 December 1999)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Seyni OUMAROU (since 3 June 2007); appointed by the president и shares some executive responsibilities with the president
cabinet: 26-member Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); second round of election last held 4 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009)
результаты выборов: Mamadou TANDJA reelected president; percent of vote - Mamadou TANDJA 65.5%, Mahamadou ISSOUFOU 34.5%
Нигерия глава государства: Президент Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
выборы: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)
результаты выборов: Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA elected president; percent of vote - Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA 69.8%, Muhammadu BUHARI 18.7%, Atiku ABUBAKAR 7.5%, Orji Uzor KALU 1.7%, other 2.3%
Ниуэ глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Новой Зеландии Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); the Великобритания и Новая Зеландия are represented by Новая Зеландия High Commissioner John BRYAN (since May 2000)
глава правительства: Premier Toke TALAGI (since 18 June 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier и three ministers
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 18 June 2008 (next to be held in 2011)
результаты выборов: Toke TALAGI defeats incumbent Young VIVIAN in Legislative Assembly vote; Toke TALAGI - 14, Young VIVIAN - 5
Норфолк глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by the Australian governor general
глава правительства: Acting Administrator Owen WALSH (since October 2007)
cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy и acts as an advisor to the administrator
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general Австралии и represents the monarch и Австралия
Северные Марианские острова глава государства: Президент George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice Президент Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)
глава правительства: Governor Benigno R. FITIAL (since 9 January 2006); Lieutenant Governor Timothy P. VILLAGOMEZ (since 9 January 2006)
cabinet: the cabinet consists of the heads of the 10 principal departments under the executive branch who are appointed by the governor with the advice и consent of the Senate; other members include Special Assistants to the governor и office heads appointed by и reporting directly to the governor
выборы: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as the Commonwealth of the Северные Марианские острова, do not vote in elections for US president и vice president; however, they may vote in the Democratic и Republican presidential primary elections; governor и lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 5 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2009)
результаты выборов: Benigno R. FITIAL elected governor in a four-way race; percent of vote - Benigno R. FITIAL 28.07%, Heinz HOFSCHNEIDER 27.34%, Juan BABAUTA 26.6%, Froilan TENORIO 17.99%
Норвегия глава государства: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 October 2005)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
Оман глава государства: Sultan и Премьер Министр QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 и prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Sultan и Премьер Министр QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 и prime minister since 23 July 1972)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary
Пакистан глава государства: Acting Президент Mohammedmian SOOMRO (since 18 August 2008)
примечание: following an October 1999 military coup, General Pervez MUSHARRAF suspended Пакистан's constitution и assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; in May 2000, Пакистан's Supreme Court validated the 1999 coup и granted MUSHARRAF executive и legislative authority for three лет following the coup; in June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself president, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; an April 2002 referendum extended MUSHARRAF's presidency by five лет; on 6 October 2007, MUSHARRAF was reelected Президент Пакистана, although the Supreme Court was reviewing a challenge to his eligibility to serve another term; MUSHARRAF declared emergency rule from 3 November to 15 December, during which time he replaced several Supreme Court Justices; the reconstituted court upheld his presidency on 22 November 2007
глава правительства: Syed Yousuf Raza GILANI (since 25 March 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the Президент upon the advice of the prime minister
выборы: the president is elected by secret ballot (1,170 votes total) through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, и the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2012); the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly; election last held on 24 March 2008
результаты выборов: MUSHARRAF reelected; MUSHARRAF 671 votes; Wajihuddin AHMED 8 votes; 6 votes invalid; GILANI elected prime minister GILANI 264 votes; Pervaiz ELAHI 42 votes; several abstentions
Палау глава государства: Президент Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. (since 19 January 2001); Vice Президент Camsek CHIN (since 1 January 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. (since 19 January 2001); Vice Президент Camsek CHIN (since 1 January 2005)
cabinet: нет
выборы: president и vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held in November 2008)
результаты выборов: Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. reelected president; percent of vote - Tommy Esang REMENGESAU, Jr. 64%, Polycarp BASILIUS 33%; Elias Camsek CHIN elected vice president; percent of vote - Elias Camsek CHIN 70%, Sandra PIERANTOZZI 29%
Панама глава государства: Президент Martin TORRIJOS Espino (since 1 September 2004); First Vice Президент Samuel LEWIS Navarro (since 1 September 2004); Second Vice Президент Ruben AROSEMENA Valdes (since 1 September 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Martin TORRIJOS Espino (since 1 September 2004); First Vice Президент Samuel LEWIS Navarro (since 1 September 2004); Second Vice Президент Ruben AROSEMENA Valdes (since 1 September 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president и vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (not eligible for immediate reelection; president и vice presidents must sit out two additional terms (10 лет) before becoming eligible for reelection); election last held 2 May 2004 (next to be held on 3 May 2009); note - beginning in 2009, Панама will have only один vice president
результаты выборов: Martin TORRIJOS Espino elected president; percent of vote - Martin TORRIJOS Espino 47.5%, Guillermo ENDARA Galimany 30.6%, Jose Miguel ALEMAN 17%, Ricardo MARTINELLI 4.9%
примечание: government coalition - PRD (Democratic Revolutionary Party), PP (Popular Party)
Папуа — Новая Гвинея глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by governor general Sir Paulius MATANE (since 29 June 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Sir Michael SOMARE (since 2 August 2002); Deputy Премьер Министр Puka TEMU (since 29 August 2007)
cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by governor general on recommendation of prime minister
выборы: monarch is hereditary; governor general nominated by parliament и appointed by chief of state; following legislative elections, leader of majority party или leader of majority coalition usually is appointed prime minister by governor general
Парагвай глава государства: Президент Fernando LUGO Mendez (since 15 August 2008); Vice Президент Federico FRANCO (since 15 August 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Fernando LUGO Mendez (since 15 August 2008); Vice Президент Federico FRANCO (since 15 August 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 20 April 2008 (next to be held April 2013)
результаты выборов: Fernando LUGO Mendez elected president; percent of vote - Fernando LUGO Mendez 40.8%, Blanca OVELAR 30.6%, Lino OVIEDO 21.9%, Pedro FADUL 2.4%, other 4.3%
Перу глава государства: Президент Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice Президент Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice Президент Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice Президент Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice Президент Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006)
примечание: Премьер Министр Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 August 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a nonconsecutive reelection); presidential и congressional elections held 9 April 2006 with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held in April 2011
результаты выборов: Alan GARCIA elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
Филиппины глава государства: Президент Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - president is both chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
выборы: president и vice president (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO) elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
результаты выборов: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%
Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Великобритания High Commissioner to Новая Зеландия и Governor (nonresident) of the Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании George FERGUSSON (since April 2006); Commissioner (nonresident) Leslie JAQUES (since September 2003) serves as liaison between the governor и the Island Council
глава правительства: Governor George FERGUSSON (since April 2006); Mayor и Chairman of the Island Council Mike WARREN (since 1 January 2008)
cabinet: нет
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; governor и commissioner appointed by the monarch; island mayor elected by popular vote for a three-year term; election last held December 2004 (next to be held in December 2007)
результаты выборов: Jay WARREN elected mayor и chairman of the Island Council
Польша глава государства: Президент Lech KACZYNSKI (since 23 December 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Donald TUSK (since 16 November 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Waldemar PAWLAK (since 16 November 2007) и Grzegorz SCHETYNA (since 16 November 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the prime minister и the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, и the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 9 и 23 October 2005 (next to be held in the fall 2010); prime minister и deputy prime ministers appointed by the president и confirmed by the Sejm
результаты выборов: Lech KACZYNSKI elected president; percent of popular vote - Lech KACZYNSKI 54%, Donald Tusk 46%
Португалия глава государства: Президент Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (since 12 March 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
примечание: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
результаты выборов: Anibal CAVACO SILVA elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo DE SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%
Пуэрто-Рико глава государства: Президент George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice Президент Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)
глава правительства: Governor Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA (since 2 January 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the consent of the legislature
выборы: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Пуэрто-Рико, do not vote in elections for US president и vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic и Republican presidential primary elections; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held in November 2008)
результаты выборов: Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA elected governor; percent of vote - 48.4%
Катар глава государства: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as heir apparent, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad al-Thani, in a bloodless coup); Heir Apparent TAMIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, fourth son of the monarch (selected Heir Apparent by the monarch on 5 August 2003); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of Minister of Defense и Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
глава правительства: Премьер Министр HAMAD bin Jasim bin Jabir al-Thani (since 3 April 2007); Deputy Премьер Министр Abdallah bin Hamad al-ATIYAH (since 3 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary
примечание: in April 2007, Катар held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has limited consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election for the CMC was held in March 1999
Румыния глава государства: Президент Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - Президент Traian BASESCU was suspended by vote of parliament on 19 April 2007, but resumed his duties on 23 May 2007 после a popular referendum confirmed that his impeachment should not stand
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Calin Popescu-TARICEANU (since 29 December 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 November 2004 with runoff between the top two candidates held 12 December 2004 (next to be held in November-December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
результаты выборов: percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 51.23%, Adrian NASTASE 48.77%
Россия глава государства: Президент Dmitriy Anatolyevich MEDVEDEV (since 7 May 2008)
глава правительства: Premier Vladimir Vladimirovich PUTIN (since 8 May 2008); First Deputy Premiers Igor Ivanovich SHUVALOV и Viktor Alekseyevich ZUBKOV (since 12 May 2008); Deputy Premiers Sergey Borisovich IVANOV (since 12 May 2008), Aleksey Leonidovich KUDRIN (since 24 September 2007), Igor Ivanovich SECHIN (since 12 May 2008), Sergey Semenovich SOBYANIN (since 12 May 2008), и Aleksandr Dmitriyevich ZHUKOV (since 9 March 2004)
cabinet: Ministries of the Правление или "Правление" composed of the premier и his deputies, ministers, и selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president
примечание: there is also a Presidential Administration (PA) that provides staff и policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, и coordinates policy among government agencies; a Security Council also reports directly to the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 2 March 2008 (next to be held in March 2012); note - no vice president; if the president dies in office, cannot exercise his powers because of ill health, is impeached, или resigns, the premier serves as acting president until a new presidential election is held, which must be within three months; premier appointed by the president with the approval of the Duma
результаты выборов: Dmitriy MEDVEDEV elected president; percent of vote - Dmitry MEDVEDEV 70.2%, Gennady ZYUGANOV 17.7%, Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKY 9.4%
Руанда глава государства: Президент Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: Президент elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 25 August 2003 (next to be held in 2010)
результаты выборов: Paul KAGAME elected president in first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Сен-Бартельми глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007), represented by Prefect Dominique LACROIX (since 21 March 2007)
глава правительства: Президент of the Territorial Council Bruno MAGRAS (since 16 July 2007)
cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory, economic, social, и cultural council
выборы: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council is elected by the members of the Council for a five-year term
результаты выборов: Bruno MAGRAS unanimously elected president by the Territorial Council on 16 July 2007
Святой Елены остров глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
глава правительства: Governor и Commander in Chief Andrew GURR (since 11 November 2007)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, three ex-officio officers, и five elected members of the Legislative Council
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor is appointed by the monarch
Сент-Китс и Невис глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cuthbert Montraville SEBASTIAN (since 1 January 1996)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS (since 6 July 1995); Deputy Премьер Министр Sam CONDOR (since 6 July 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general in consultation with the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Сент-Люсия глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Dame Pearlette LOUISY (since September 1997)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Stephenson KING (since 9 September 2007); note - Sir John COMPTON died in office Friday, 7 September 2007
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Saint Martin глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007), represented by Prefect Dominique LACROIX (since 21 March 2007)
глава правительства: Президент of the Territorial Council Frantz GUMBS (since 7 August 2008)
cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory economic, social, и cultural council
election: French president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council is elected by the members of the Council for a five-year term
результаты выборов: Frantz GUMBS elected president by the Territorial Council on 7 August 2008
Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Prefect Jean-Pierre BERCOT (since 28 July 2008)
глава правительства: Президент of the Territorial Council Stephane ARTANO (since 21 February 2007)
cabinet: нет
выборы: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 6 May 2007 (next to be held in 2012); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the Territorial Council is elected by the members of the council
Сент-Винсент и Гренадины глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Fredrick Nathaniel BALLANTYNE (since 2 September 2002)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ralph E. GONSALVES (since 29 March 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; the governor general is appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
Самоа глава государства: TUIATUA Tupua Tamasese Efi (since 20 June 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA (since 1998); Deputy Премьер Министр MISA Telefoni (since 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 12 members appointed by the chief of state on the prime minister's advice
выборы: chief of state is elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 15 June 2007 (next to be held in 2012); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state with the approval of the Legislative Assembly
результаты выборов: TUIATUA Tupua Tamasese Efi unanimously elected by the Legislative Assembly
Сан-Маринo глава государства: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Federico Pedini AMATI и Captain Regent Rosa ZAFFERANI (for the period 1 April-30 September 2008)
глава правительства: Secretary of State for Foreign и Political Affairs Fiorenzo STOLFI (since 27 July 2006)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great и General Council for a five-year term
выборы: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great и General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2007 (next to be held in March 2008); secretary of state for foreign и political affairs elected by the Great и General Council for a five-year term; election last held 27 July 2006 (next to be held by 2011)
результаты выборов: Mirko TOMASSONI и Alberto SELVA elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - нет; Fiorenzo STOLFI elected secretary of state for foreign и political affairs; percent of legislative vote - нет
примечание: the popularly elected parliament (Grand и General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand и General Council и its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand и General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
Сан-Томе и Принсипи глава государства: Президент Fradique DE MENEZES (since 3 September 2001)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Joachim Rafael BRANCO (since 22 June 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the proposal of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 30 July 2006 (next to be held July 2011); prime minister chosen by the National Assembly и approved by the president
результаты выборов: Fradique DE MENEZES elected president; percent of vote - Fradique DE MENEZES 60%, Patrice TROVOADA 38.5%
Саудовская Аравия глава государства: King и Премьер Министр ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SULTAN bin Abd al- Aziz Al Saud (half brother of the monarch, born 5 January 1928); note - the monarch is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: King и Премьер Министр ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 1 August 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers is appointed by the monarch every four лет и включая many royal family members
выборы: none; the monarchy is hereditary; note - a new Allegiance Commission created by royal decree in October 2006 established a committee of Saudi princes that will play a role in selecting future Saudi kings, but the new system will not take effect until после Crown Prince Sultan becomes king
Сенегал глава государства: Президент Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Cheikh Hadjibou SOUMARE (since 19 June 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) under new constitution; election last held on 25 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Abdoulaye WADE reelected president in the first round of voting; percent of vote - Abdoulaye WADE 55.9%, Idrissa SECK 14.9%, Ousmane Tanor DIENG 13.6%, Moustapha NIASSE 5.9%, other 9.7%
Сербия глава государства: Президент Boris TADIC (since 11 July 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Mirko CVETKOVIC (since 7 July 2008)
cabinet: Federal Ministries act as cabinet
выборы: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister elected by the Assembly
результаты выборов: Boris TADIC elected president in the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 51.2% of the vote и Tomislav NIKOLIC 48.8%
Сейшельские Острова глава государства: Президент James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент James MICHEL (since 14 April 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held 28-30 July 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
результаты выборов: Президент James MICHEL elected president; percent of vote - James MICHEL 53.73%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 45.71%, Philippe BOULLE 0.56%; note - this was the first election in which Президент James MICHEL participated; he was originally sworn in as president после former president Франция Albert RENE stepped down in April 2004
Сьерра-Леоне глава государства: Президент Ernest Bai KOROMA (since 17 September 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Ernest Bai KOROMA (since 17 September 2007)
cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president with the approval of the House of Representatives; the cabinet is responsible to the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 August 2007 и 8 September 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
результаты выборов: second round results; percent of vote - Ernest Bai KOROMA 54.6%, Solomon BEREWA 45.4%
Сингапур глава государства: Президент S R NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)
примечание: uses S R NATHAN but his full name и the один used in formal communications is Sellapan RAMANATHAN
глава правительства: Премьер Министр LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Senior Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 12 August 2004); Minister Mentor LEE Kuan Yew (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Ministers Shunmugam JAYAKUMAR (since 12 August 2004) и WONG Kan Seng (since 1 September 2005)
cabinet: appointed by president, responsible to parliament
выборы: president elected by popular vote for six-year term; appointed on 17 August 2005 (next election to be held by August 2011); following legislative elections, leader of majority party или leader of majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president
результаты выборов: Sellapan Rama (S R) NATHAN appointed president in August 2005 после Presidential Elections Committee disqualified three other would-be candidates; scheduled election not held
Словакия глава государства: Президент Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Robert FICO (since 4 July 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Dusan CAPLOVIC, Robert KALINAK, Stefan HARABIN, Jan MIKOLAJ (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 April и 17 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
результаты выборов: Ivan GASPAROVIC elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 59.9%, Vladimir MECIAR 40.1%
Словения глава государства: Президент Danilo TURK (since 22 December 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Janez JANSA (since 9 November 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister и elected by the National Assembly
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 October и 11 November 2007 (next to be held in the fall of 2012); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president и elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 November 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held in October 2008)
результаты выборов: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2%, Alojze PETERLE 31.8%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister by National Assembly vote - 57 to 27 in 2004
Соломоновы Острова глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Nathaniel WAENA (since 7 July 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Derek SIKUA (since 20 December 2007); note - Премьер Министр Manasseh SOGAVARE defeated in a no confidence vote in parliament on 13 December 2007; SIKUA elected on 20 December 2007
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 20 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of Parliament for up to five лет (eligible for a second term); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister from among the members of Parliament
Сомали глава государства: Transitional Federal Президент Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed (since 14 October 2004); note - a transitional governing entity with a five-year mandate, known as the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), was established in October 2004; the TFIs relocated to Сомали in June 2004
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Nur "Adde" HASSAN Hussein (since 24 November 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister и approved by the Transitional Federal Assembly
результаты выборов: Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed, the former leader of the semi-autonomous Puntland region Сомали, was elected president by the Transitional Federal Assembly
Южно-Африканская Республика глава государства: Президент Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy Президент Phumzile MLAMBO-NGCUKA (since 23 June 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy Президент Phumzile MLAMBO-NGCUKA (since 23 June 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009)
результаты выборов: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)
Испания глава государства: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968
глава правительства: Президент of the Правление (Премьер Министр equivalent) Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO (since 17 April 2004); First Vice Президент (и Minister of the Presidency) Maria Teresa FERNANDEZ DE LA VEGA (since 18 April 2004) и Second Vice Президент (и Minister of Экономика и Finance) Pedro SOLBES (since 18 April 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
примечание: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually proposed president by the monarch и elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 и 11 April 2008 (next to be held in March 2012); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president
результаты выборов: Jose Luis RODRIGUEZ ZAPATERO reelected Президент of the Правление; percent of National Assembly vote - 46.94%
Шри-Ланка глава государства: Президент Mahinda RAJAPAKSA (since 19 November 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства; Ratnasiri WICKREMANAYAKE (since 21 November 2005) holds the largely ceremonial title of prime minister
глава правительства: Президент Mahinda RAJAPAKSA (since 19 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 November 2005 (next to be held in 2011)
результаты выборов: Mahinda RAJAPAKSA elected president; percent of vote - Mahinda RAJAPAKSA 50.3%, Ranil WICKREMESINGHE 48.4%, other 1.3%
Судан глава государства: Президент Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice Президент Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice Президент Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice Президент Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice Президент Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party или NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front или NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
выборы: election last held 13-23 December 2000; next to be held no later than July 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
результаты выборов: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees for a free и fair election
примечание: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman Судана's Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 и served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, и minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996
Суринам глава государства: Президент Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (since 12 August 2000); Vice Президент Ramdien SARDJOE (since 3 August 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN (since 12 August 2000); Vice Президент Ram SARDJOE (since 3 August 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president и vice president elected by the National Assembly или, if no presidential или vice presidential candidate receives a two-thirds constitutional majority in the National Assembly после two votes, by a simple majority in the larger United Люди's Assembly (893 representatives from the national, local, и regional councils), for five-year terms (no term limits); election last held on 25 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
результаты выборов: Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN reelected president; percent of vote - Runaldo Ronald VENETIAAN 62.9%, Rabin PARMESSAR 35.4%, other 1.7%; note - после two votes in the parliament failed to secure a two-thirds majority for a candidate, the vote then went to a special session of the United Люди's Assembly on 3 August 2005
Свальбард глава государства: King HARALD V Норвегии (since 17 January 1991)
глава правительства: Governor Per SEFLAND (since 1 October 2005); Assistant Governor Rune Baard HANSEN (since 2003)
выборы: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor и assistant governor responsible to the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice
Свазиленд глава государства: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Absolom Themba DLAMINI (since 14 November 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister и confirmed by the monarch
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
Швеция глава государства: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 October 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the parliament; election last held on 17 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2010)
результаты выборов: Fredrik REINFELDT elected prime minister with 175 out of 349 votes
Швейцария глава государства: Президент Pascal COUCHEPIN (since 1 January 2008); Vice Президент Hans-Rudolf MERZ (since 1 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства representing the Federal Council; the Federal Council is the formal chief of state и глава правительства whose council members, rotating in один-year terms as federal president, represent the Council
глава правительства: Президент Pascal COUCHEPIN (since 1 January 2008); Vice Президент Hans-Rudolf MERZ (since 1 January 2008)
cabinet: Federal Council или Bundesrat (in German), Conseil Federal (in French), Consiglio Federale (in Italian) elected by the Federal Assembly usually from among its members for a four-year term
выборы: president и vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council for a один-year term (they may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 12 December 2007 (next to be held in December 2008)
результаты выборов: Pascal COUCHEPIN elected president; percent of Federal Assembly vote - 80.0%; Hans-Rudolf MERZ elected vice president; percent of Federal Assembly vote - 86.5%
Сирия глава государства: Президент Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 July 2000); Vice Президент Farouk al-SHARA (since 11 February 2006) oversees foreign policy; Vice Президент Najah al-ATTAR (since 23 March 2006) oversees cultural policy
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Muhammad Naji al-UTRI (since 10 September 2003); Deputy Премьер Министр for Economic Affairs Abdallah al-DARDARI (since 14 June 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president approved by popular referendum for a second seven-year term (no term limits); referendum last held on 27 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2014); the president appoints the vice presidents, prime minister, и deputy prime ministers
результаты выборов: Bashar al-ASAD approved as president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD 97.6%
Тайвань глава государства: Президент MA Ying-jeou (since 20 May 2008); Vice Президент Vincent SIEW (since 20 May 2008)
глава правительства: Premier (Президент of the Executive Yuan) LIO Chao-shiuan (since 20 May 2008); Vice Premier (Vice Президент of Executive Yuan) Paul CHIU (CHANG-hsiung) (since 20 May 2008)
cabinet: Executive Yuan - (ministers appointed by president on recommendation of premier)
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 March 2008 (next to be held in March 2012); premier appointed by the president; vice premiers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the premier
результаты выборов: MA Ying-jeou elected president on 22 March 2008; percent of vote - MA Ying-jeou 58.45%, Frank HSIEH 41.55%; MA Ying-jeou takes office on 20 May 2008
Таджикистан глава государства: Президент Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state и Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimzon BOBOYEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
Танзания глава государства: Президент Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice Президент Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice Президент Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001)
примечание: Zanzibar elects a president who is глава правительства for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was reelected to that office on 30 October 2005
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 14 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 80.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 11.7%, Freeman MBOWE 5.9%
Таиланд глава государства: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (BHUMIBOL Adulyadej) (since 9 June 1946)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр SAMAK Sundavavej (since 29 January 2008); Deputy Премьер Министр KOWIT Wattana (since 5 August 2008); Deputy Премьер Министр MAN Pattanothai (MAN Patanotai) (since 5 August 2008); Deputy Премьер Министр SAHAS Banditkun (SAHAS Banditkul) (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Премьер Министр SANAN Kachornprasat (ANA Kachornparsart) (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Премьер Министр SOMCHAI Wongsawat (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Премьер Министр SURAPONG Suebwonglee (since 7 February 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
примечание: there is also a Privy Council
выборы: monarch is hereditary; according to 2007 constitution, prime minister is designated from among members of House of Representatives; following national elections for House of Representatives, leader of party that could organize a majority coalition usually was appointed prime minister by king; prime minister is limited to two 4-year terms
Восточный Тимор глава государства: Президент Jose RAMOS-HORTA (since 20 May 2007); note - the president plays a largely symbolic role but is able to veto legislation, dissolve parliament, и call national elections
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO (since 8 August 2007), note - he formerly used the name Jose Alexandre GUSMAO; Deputy Премьер Министр Jose Luis GUTERRES (since 8 August 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 April 2007 with run-off on 8 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2012); following elections, president appoints leader of majority party или majority coalition as prime minister
результаты выборов: Jose RAMOS-HORTA elected president; percent of vote - Jose RAMOS-HORTA 69.2%, Francisco GUTTERES 30.8%
Того глава государства: Президент Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 и was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, with the support of the military following international condemnation for the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections, и Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections in April 2005
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Komlan MALLY (since 3 December 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president и the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held by 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
Токелау глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Новой Зеландии Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); Новая Зеландия is represented by Administrator David PAYTON (since 17 October 2006)
глава правительства: Pio TUIA (since 23 February 2008); note - position rotates annually among the three Faipule (village leaders)
cabinet: the Council for the Ongoing Правление Токелау, consisting of three Faipule (village leaders) и three Pulenuku (village mayors), functions as a cabinet
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs и Trade in Новая Зеландия; the глава правительства is chosen from the Council of Faipule и serves a один-year term
Тонга глава государства: King George TUPOU V (since 11 September 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Dr. Feleti SEVELE (since 11 February 2006); Deputy Премьер Министр Dr. Viliami TANGI (since 16 May 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 14 members, 10 appointed by the monarch for life; four appointed from among the elected members of the Legislative Assembly, including two each from the nobles' и peoples' representatives serving three-year terms
примечание: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the monarch, the cabinet, и two governors
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; prime minister и deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch
Тринидад и Тобаго глава государства: Президент George Maxwell RICHARDS (since 17 March 2003)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Patrick MANNING (since 24 December 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
выборы: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of the members of the Senate и House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 February 2008 (next to be held by February 2013); the president usually appoints as prime minister the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives
результаты выборов: George Maxwell RICHARDS reelected president; percent of electoral college vote - нет
Тунис глава государства: Президент Zine el Abidine BEN ALI (since 7 November 1987)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Mohamed GHANNOUCHI (since 17 November 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Президент Zine El Abidine BEN ALI reelected for a fourth term; percent of vote - Zine El Abidine BEN ALI 94.5%, Mohamed BOUCHIHA 3.8%, Mohamed Ali HALOUANI 1%
Турция глава государства: Президент Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Премьер Министр Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Премьер Министр Hayati YAZICI (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Премьер Министр Nazim EKREN (since 29 August 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by the National Assembly for один seven-year terms; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
результаты выборов: Abdullah GUL received 339 votes in the third round of voting on 28 August 2007, после failing to garner the two thirds vote required by law in the first two rounds
примечание: president-elect must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots и a simple majority on the third ballot
Туркменистан глава государства: Президент Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 11 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
результаты выборов: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW elected president; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW 89.2%, Amanyaz ATAJYKOW 3.2%, other candidates 7.6%
Тёркс и Кайкос глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Gordon WETHERELL (since 5 August 2008)
глава правительства: Premier Michael Eugene MISICK (chief minister since 15 August 2003, sworn in as premier on 9 August 2006); note - the office of premier was created in the 2006 constitution
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the governor, the premier, six ministers appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly, и the attorney general
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed premier by the governor
Тувалу глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Filoimea TELITO (since 15 April 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Apisai IELEMIA (since 14 August 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
выборы: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister и deputy prime minister elected by и from the members of Parliament; election last held 14 August 2006 (next to be held following parliamentary elections in 2010)
результаты выборов: Apisai IELEMIA elected Премьер Министр in a Parliamentary election on 14 August 2006
Угадна глава государства: Президент Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); Премьер Министр Apolo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
выборы: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 23 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
результаты выборов: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 59.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 37.4%, other 3.3%
Украина глава государства: Президент Viktor A. YUSHCHENKO (since 23 January 2005)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (since 18 December 2007); First Deputy Премьер Министр Oleksandr TURCHYNOV (since 18 December 2007); Deputy Prime Ministers Hryhoriy NEMYRYA и Ivan VASYUNYK (since 18 December 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers selected by the prime minister; the only exceptions are the foreign и defense ministers, who are chosen by the president
примечание: there is also a National Security и Defense Council или NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic и international matters и advising the president; a Presidential Secretariat helps draft presidential edicts и provides policy support to the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); note - a special repeat runoff presidential election between Viktor YUSHCHENKO и Viktor YANUKOVYCH took place on 26 December 2004 после the earlier 21 November 2004 contest - won by YANUKOVYCH - was invalidated by the Ukrainian Supreme Court because of widespread и significant violations; under constitutional reforms that went into effect 1 January 2006, the majority in parliament takes the свинец in naming the prime minister
результаты выборов: Viktor YUSHCHENKO elected president; percent of vote - Viktor YUSHCHENKO 52%, Viktor YANUKOVYCH 44.2%
Объединенные Арабские Эмираты глава государства: Президент KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (since 3 November 2004), ruler of Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) (since 4 November 2004); Vice Президент и Премьер Министр MUHAMMAD BIN RASHID Al-Maktum (since 5 January 2006)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр и Vice Президент MUHAMMAD bin Rashid Al-Maktum (since 5 January 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers SULTAN bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (since 20 November 1990) и HAMDAN bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan (since 20 October 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
примечание: there is also a Federal Supreme Council (FSC) composed of the seven emirate rulers; the FSC is the highest constitutional authority in the UAE; establishes general policies и sanctions federal legislation; meets four times a year; Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi) и Dubayy (Dubai) rulers have принята veto power
выборы: president и vice president elected by the FSC for five-year terms (no term limits); election last held 3 November 2004 upon the death of the UAE's Founding Father и first Президент ZAYID bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan (next to be held in 2009); prime minister и deputy prime minister appointed by the president
результаты выборов: KHALIFA bin Zayid Al-Nuhayyan elected president by a unanimous vote of the FSC; MUHAMMAD bin Rashid Al-Maktum unanimously affirmed vice president после the 2006 death of his brother Sheikh Maktum bin Rashid Al-Maktum
Великобритания глава государства: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the queen, born 14 November 1948)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Gordon BROWN (since 27 June 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
выборы: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или the leader of the majority coalition is usually the prime minister
США глава государства: Президент George W. BUSH (since 20 January 2001); Vice Президент Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент George W. BUSH (since 20 January 2001); Vice Президент Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president и vice president serve four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held on 4 November 2008)
результаты выборов: George W. BUSH reelected president; percent of popular vote - George W. BUSH 50.9%, John KERRY 48.1%, other 1.0%
Уругвай глава государства: Президент Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 March 2005); Vice Президент Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 March 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 March 2005); Vice Президент Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 March 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with parliamentary approval
выборы: president и vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 31 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009)
результаты выборов: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ 50.5%, Jorge LARRANAGA 35.1%, Guillermo STIRLING 10.3%; other 4.1%
Узбекистан глава государства: Президент Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Премьер Министр Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, и deputy ministers appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Aslidden RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TASHMUKHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%
Вануату глава государства: Президент Kalkot Matas KELEKELE (since 16 August 2004)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ham LINI (since 11 December 2004); Deputy Премьер Министр Sato KILMAN (since 11 December 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, responsible to Parliament
выборы: president elected for a five-year term by an electoral college consisting of Parliament и the presidents of the regional councils; election for president last held 16 August 2004 (next to be held in 2009); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party или majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by Parliament from among its members; election for prime minister last held 29 July 2004 (next to be held following general elections in 2008)
результаты выборов: Kalkot Matas KELEKELE elected president, with 49 votes out of 56, после several ballots on 16 August 2004
Венесуэлa глава государства: Президент Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Executive Vice Президент Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Президент Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 3 February 1999); Executive Vice Президент Ramon Alonzo CARRIZALEZ Rengifo (since 4 January 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2012)
примечание: in 1999, a National Constituent Assembly drafted a new constitution that increased the presidential term to six лет; an election was subsequently held on 30 July 2000 under the terms of this constitution
результаты выборов: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias reelected president; percent of vote - Hugo CHAVEZ Frias 62.9%, Manuel ROSALES 36.9%
Вьетнам глава государства: Президент Nguyen Minh TRIET (since 27 June 2006); Vice Президент Nguyen Thi DOAN (since 25 July 2007)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 27 June 2006); Permanent Deputy Премьер Министр Nguyen Sinh HUNG (since 28 June 2006), Deputy Премьер Министр Hoang Trung HAI (since 2 August 2007), Deputy Премьер Министр Nguyen Thien NHAN (since 2 August 2007), Deputy Премьер Министр Pham Gia KHIEM (since 28 June 2006), и Deputy Премьер Министр Truong Vinh TRONG (since 28 June 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister и confirmed by National Assembly
выборы: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for five-year term; last held 27 June 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister и deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly
результаты выборов: Nguyen Minh TRIET elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 94%; Nguyen Tan DUNG elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote - 92%
Виргинские Острова (Британские) глава государства: Президент George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice Президент Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)
глава правительства: Governor John DeJONGH (since 1 January 2007)
cabinet: нет
выборы: under the US Constitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as the Виргинские Острова (Британские) , do not vote in elections for US president и vice president; however, they may vote in the Democratic и Republican presidential primary elections; governor и lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 и 21 November 2006 (next to be held November 2010)
результаты выборов: John DeJONGH elected governor; percent of vote - John DeJONGH 57.3%, Kenneth MAPP 42.7%
Уоллис и Футуна глава государства: Президент Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by High Administrator Philippe PAOLANTONI (since 28 July 2008)
глава правительства: Президент of the Territorial Assembly Patalione KANIMOA (since January 2001)
cabinet: Council of the Territory consists of three kings и three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly
примечание: there are three traditional kings with limited powers
выборы: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; high administrator appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Правление и the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly
Западная Сахара none
Емен глава государства: Президент Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of Северный Емен, assumed office upon the merger of Северный и South Емен); Vice Президент Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)
глава правительства: Премьер Министр Ali Muhammad MUJAWWAR (since 31 March 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 20 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2013); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister и deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 77.2%, Faysal BIN SHAMLAN 21.8%
Замбия глава государства: Acting Президент Rupiah BANDA (since 19 August 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Vice Президент Rupiah BANDA (acting Президент since June 2008) note - Vice Президент BANDA (since 9 October 2006) has been acting president since the illnes и eventual death of Президент Levy MWANAWASA on 18 August 2008
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
выборы: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 September 2006 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Levy MWANAWASA reelected president; percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 43.0%, Michael SATA 29.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 25.3%, Godfrey MIYANDA 1.6%, Winright NGONDO 0.8%
Зимбабве глава государства: Executive Президент Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice Президент Joseph MSIKA (since December 1999) и Vice Президент Joyce MUJURU (since 6 December 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state и глава правительства
глава правительства: Executive Президент Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice Президент Joseph MSIKA (since December 1999) и Vice Президент Joyce MUJURU (since 6 December 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly
выборы: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least один from each province) и elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); elections last held 28 March 2008 followed by a run-off on 27 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013); co-vice presidents appointed by the president
результаты выборов: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 85.5%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 9.3%, other 5.2%; note - first round voting results - Morgan TSVANGIRAI 47.9%, Robert Gabriel MUGABE 43.2%, Simba MAKONI 8.3%, other 0.6%; first-round round polls were deemed to be flawed suppressing TSVANGIRAI's results; the 27 June 2008 run-off between MUGABE и TSVANGIRAI were severely flawed и internationally condemned

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


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