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  Список стран- Judicial branch


Страна
Judicial branch
Афганистан the constitution establishes a nine-member Stera Mahkama или Supreme Court (its nine justices are appointed for 10-year terms by the president with approval of the Wolesi Jirga) и subordinate High Courts и Appeals Courts; there is also a minister of justice; a separate Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission established by the Bonn Agreement is charged with investigating human rights abuses и war crimes
Албания Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the Люди's Assembly for a four-year term), и multiple appeals и district courts
Алжир Supreme Court
Американское Самоа High Court (chief justice и associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)
Андорра Tribunal of Judges или Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts или Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice Андорры или Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Андорра; Supreme Council of Justice или Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry или Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal или Tribunal Constitucional
Ангола Supreme Court и separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)
Ангилья High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)
Антигуа и Барбуда Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Сент-Люсия; один judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands и presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice
Аргентина Supreme Court или Corte Suprema (the nine Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate)
примечание: the Supreme Court currently has two unfilled vacancies, и the Argentine Congress is considering a bill to reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five
Армения Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)
Аруба Common Court of Justice Арубы (judges are appointed by the monarch)
Австралия High Court (the chief justice и six other justices are appointed by the governor general)
Австрия Supreme Judicial Court или Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court или Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court или Verfassungsgerichtshof
Азербайджан Supreme Court
Багамские Острова, The Privy Council in London; Courts of Appeal; Supreme (lower) Court; Magistrates' Courts
Бахрейн High Civil Appeals Court
Бангладеш Supreme Court (the chief justices и other judges are appointed by the president)
Барбадос Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial и Legal Services); Caribbean Court of Justice is the highest court of appeal
Беларусь Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Constitutional Court (half of the judges appointed by the president и half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives)
Бельгия Supreme Court of Justice или Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) или Cour de Cassation (in French) (judges are appointed for life by the government; candidacies have to be submitted by the High Justice Council)
Белиз Supreme Court of Judicature (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
Бенин Constitutional Court или Cour Constitutionnelle; Supreme Court или Cour Supreme; High Court of Justice
Бермуды Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
Бутан Supreme Court of Appeal (the monarch); High Court (judges appointed by the monarch); note - the draft constitution establishes a Supreme Court, which will serve as chief court of appeal
Боливия Supreme Court или Corte Suprema (judges appointed for 10-year terms by National Congress); District Courts (один in each department); provincial и local courts (to try minor cases); Constitutional Tribunal (five primary или titulares и five alternate или suplente magistrates appointed by Congress; to rule on constitutional issues); National Electoral Court (six members elected by Congress, Supreme Court, the Президент, и the political party with the highest vote in the last election for 4-year terms)
Босния и Герцеговина BH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, и three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BH State Court (consists of nine judges и three divisions - Administrative, Appellate и Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law и appellate jurisdiction over cases initiated in the entities); a War Crimes Chamber opened in March 2005
примечание: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five municipal courts
Ботсвана High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (один in each district)
Бразилия Supreme Federal Tribunal или STF (11 ministers are appointed for life by the president и confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life); note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70
Британские Виргинские острова Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the High Court of Justice и the Court of Appeal (один judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands и presides over the High Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary Jurisdiction
Бруней Supreme Court - chief justice и judges are sworn in by monarch for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London is final court of appeal for civil cases; Shariah courts deal with Islamic laws (2006)
Болгария Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed или elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, и 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, и investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly и 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Буркина Фасо Supreme Court; Appeals Court
Мьянма remnants of the British-era legal system are in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive
Бурунди Supreme Court или Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; High Court of Justice (composed of the Supreme Court и the Constitutional Court)
Камбоджа Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution и formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (и lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Камерун Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Court of Justice (consists of nine judges и six substitute judges, elected by the National Assembly)
Канада Supreme Court Канады (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court Канады; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, и Court of Justice)
Кабо-Верде Supreme Tribunal of Justice или Supremo Tribunal de Justia
Каймановы Острoва Summary Court; Grand Court; Каймановы Острoва Court of Appeal
Центральноафриканская Республика Supreme Court или Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court (3 judges appointed by the president, 3 by the president of the National Assembly, и 3 by fellow judges); Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Inferior Courts
Чад Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Чили Supreme Court или Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the president и ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; the president of the Supreme Court is elected every three лет by the 20-member court); Constitutional Tribunal
Китай Supreme Люди's Court (judges appointed by the National Люди's Congress); Local Люди's Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, и basic courts); Special Люди's Courts (primarily military, maritime, railway транспорт, и лесоводство courts)
Рождества Остров Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court
Кокосовые Острова Supreme Court; Magistrate's Court
Колумбия four roughly coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice или Corte Suprema de Justicia (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected by their peers from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Superior Judicial Council for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity и supremacy of the constitution; rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, и international treaties); Superior Judicial Council (administers и disciplines the civilian judiciary; resolves jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts и Congress for eight-year terms)
Коморские Острова Supreme Court или Cour Supremes (two members appointed by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, один elected by the Council of each island, и others are former presidents of the republic)
Congo, Democratic Республика the Constitutional Court; Appeals Court или Cour de Cassation; Council of State; High Армия Court; plus civil и military courts и tribunals
Congo, Республика the Supreme Court или Cour Supreme
Острова Кука High Court
Коста-Рика Supreme Court или Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected for renewable eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)
Кот-д’Ивуар Supreme Court или Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, и Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members
Хорватия Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly
Куба Люди's Supreme Court или Tribunal Supremo Popular (president, vice president, и other judges are elected by the National Assembly)
Кипр Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president и vice president)
примечание: there is also a Supreme Court in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots
Чешская республика Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman и deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
Дания Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch for life)
Джибути Supreme Court или Cour Supreme
Доминика Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the Court of Appeal и the High Court (located in Сент-Люсия; один of the six judges must reside in Доминика и preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)
Доминиканская республика Supreme Court или Corte Suprema (judges are appointed by the National Judicial Council comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, и an additional non-governing party congressional representative)
Эквадор Supreme Court или Corte Suprema (according to the Constitution, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; in December 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
Египет Supreme Constitutional Court
Сальвадор Supreme Court или Corte Suprema (15 judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly; the 15 judges are assigned to four Supreme Court chambers - constitutional, civil, penal, и administrative conflict)
Экваториальная Гвинея Supreme Tribunal
Эритрея High Court - regional, subregional, и village courts; also have military и special courts
Эстония National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Эфиопия Federal Supreme Court (the president и vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister и appointed by the House of Люди's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of Люди's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
Европейское сообщество Court of Justice of the European Communities (ensures that the treaties are interpreted и applied uniformly throughout the EU; resolve constitutional issues among the EU institutions) - 27 justices (один from each member state) appointed for a six-year term; note - for the sake of efficiency, the court can sit with 13 justices known as the "Grand Chamber"; Court of First Instance - 27 justices appointed for a six-year term
Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil и criminal divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction
Фарерские Острова none
Фиджи Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts
Финляндия Supreme Court или Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
Франция Supreme Court of Appeals или Cour de Cassation (judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of the Judiciary); Constitutional Council или Conseil Constitutionnel (three members appointed by the president, three appointed by the president of the National Assembly, и three appointed by the president of the Senate); Council of State или Conseil d'Etat
Французская Полинезия Court of Appeal или Cour d'Appel; Court of the First Instance или Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Administrative Law или Tribunal Administratif
Габон Supreme Court или Cour Supreme consisting of three chambers - Judicial, Administrative, и Accounts; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; County Courts
Гамбия Supreme Court
Грузия Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's или chairman of the Supreme Court's recommendation); Constitutional Court; first и second instance courts
Германия Federal Constitutional Court или Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag и half by the Bundesrat)
Гана Supreme Court
Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Греция Supreme Judicial Court; Special Supreme Tribunal; all judges appointed for life by the president после consultation with a judicial council
Гренландия High Court или Landsret (appeals can be made to the Ostre Landsret или Eastern Division of the High Court или Supreme Court in Copenhagen)
Гренада Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of a court of Appeal и a High Court of Justice (a High Court judge is assigned to и resides in Гренада)
Гуам Federal District Court (judge is appointed by the president); Territorial Superior Court (judges appointed for eight-year terms by the governor)
Гватемала Constitutional Court или Corte de Constitucionalidad is Гватемала 's highest court (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms); Supreme Court of Justice или Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members serve concurrent five-year terms и elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms)
Гернси: коронная земля Великобритании Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college и the bailiff)
Гвинея Court of First Instance или Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Appeal или Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court или Cour Supreme
Гвинея-Бисау Supreme Court или Supremo Tribunal da Justica (consists of nine justices appointed by the president и serve at his pleasure; final court of appeals in criminal и civil cases); Regional Courts (один in each of nine regions; first court of appeals for Sectoral Court decisions; hear all felony cases и civil cases valued at more than $1,000); 24 Sectoral Courts (judges are not necessarily trained lawyers; they hear civil cases valued at less than $1,000 и misdemeanor criminal cases)
Гвиана Supreme Court of Judicature, consisting of the High Court и the Judicial Court of Appeal, with right of final appeal to the Caribbean Court of Justice
Гаити Supreme Court или Cour de Cassation
Ватикан there are three tribunals responsible for civil и criminal matters within Vatican City; three other tribunals rule on issues pertaining to the Holy See
примечание: judicial duties were established by the Motu Proprio of Pope PIUS XII on 1 May 1946
Гондурас Supreme Court of Justice или Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 judges are elected for seven-year terms by the National Congress)
Гонконг Court of Final Appeal in the Гонконг Special Administrative Region
Венгрия Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Исландия Supreme Court или Haestirettur (justices are appointed for life by the Minister of Justice); eight district courts (justices are appointed for life by the Minister of Justice)
Индия Supreme Court (один chief justice и 25 associate justices are appointed by the president и remain in office until they reach the age of 65 или are removed for "proved misbehavior")
Индонeзия Supreme Court или Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court или Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative и financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice и Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006
Иран The Supreme Court (Qeveh Qazaieh) и the four-member High Council of the Judiciary have a single head и overlapping responsibilities; together they supervise the enforcement of all laws и establish judicial и legal policies; lower courts include a special clerical court, a revolutionary court, и a special administrative court
Ирак the Ирак Constitution calls for the federal judicial power to be comprised of the Higher Juridical Council, Federal Supreme Court, Federal Court of Cassation, Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission и other federal courts that are regulated in accordance with the law
Ирландия Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister и cabinet)
Остров Мэн High Court of Justice (justices are appointed by the Lord Chancellor of England on the nomination of the lieutenant governor)
Израиль Supreme Court (justices appointed by Judicial Selection Committee - made up of all three branches of the government; mandatory retirement age is 70)
Италия Constitutional Court или Corte Costituzionale (composed of 15 judges: один-third appointed by the president, один-third elected by parliament, один-third elected by the ordinary и administrative Supreme Courts)
Ямайка Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal
Япония Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the monarch после designation by the cabinet; all other justices are appointed by the cabinet)
Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college и the bailiff)
Иордания Court of Cassation; Supreme Court (court of final appeal)
Казахстан Supreme Court (44 members); Constitutional Council (7 members)
Кения Court of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
Кирибати Court of Appeal; High Court; 26 Magistrates' courts; judges at all levels are appointed by the president
Северная Корея Central Court (judges are elected by the Supreme Люди's Assembly)
Южная Корея Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president with consent of National Assembly); Constitutional Court (justices appointed by the president based partly on nominations by National Assembly и Chief Justice of the court)
Косовo Supreme Court judges are appointed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); district courts judges are appointed by the SRSG; municipal courts judges are appointed by the SRSG
примечание: после the termination of UNMIK's mandate, the Косовo Judicial Council (KJC) will propose to the president candidates for appointment или reappointment as judges и prosecutors; the KJC is also responsible for decisions on the promotion и transfer of judges и disciplinary proceedings against judges; at least 15% of Supreme Court и district court judges shall be from nonmajority communities
Кювейт High Court of Appeal
Киргизия Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (judges of both the Supreme и Constitutional Courts are appointed for 10-year terms by the Jorgorku Kengesh on the recommendation of the president; their mandatory retirement age is 70 лет); Higher Court of Arbitration; Local Courts (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council on Legal Affairs for a probationary period of five лет, then 10 лет)
Лаоc Люди's Supreme Court (the president of the Люди's Supreme Court is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee; the vice president of the Люди's Supreme Court и the judges are appointed by the National Assembly Standing Committee)
Латвия Supreme Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament); Constitutional Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament)
Ливан four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil и commercial cases и один court for criminal cases); Constitutional Council (called for in Ta'if Accord - rules on constitutionality of laws); Supreme Council (hears charges against the president и prime minister as needed)
Лесото High Court (chief justice appointed by the monarch acting on the advice of the Премьер Министр); Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts; customary или traditional court
Либерия Supreme Court
Либия Supreme Court
Лихтенштейн Supreme Court или Oberster Gerichtshof; Court of Appeal или Obergericht
Литва Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the president
Люксембург judicial courts и tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, и 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts и tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts и tribunals, и the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Macau Court of Final Appeal in Macau Special Administrative Region
Македония Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Мадагаскар Supreme Court или Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court или Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Малави Supreme Court of Appeal; High Court (chief justice appointed by the president, puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission); magistrate's courts
Малазия Civil Courts include Federal Court, Court of Appeal, High Court of Malaya on peninsula Малазия, и High Court of Sabah и Sarawak in states of Borneo (judges appointed by the paramount ruler on the advice of the prime minister); Sharia Courts include Sharia Appeal Court, Sharia High Court, и Sharia Subordinate Courts at state-level и deal with religious и family matters such as custody, divorce, и inheritance, only for Muslims; decisions of Sharia courts cannot be appealed to civil courts
Мальдивы High Court
Мали Supreme Court или Cour Supreme
Мальта Constitutional Court; Court of Appeal; judges for both courts are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
Маршалловы Острова Supreme Court; High Court; Traditional Rights Court
Мавритания Supreme Court или Cour Supreme; Court of Appeals; lower courts
Маврикий Supreme Court
Майотта: заморская территория Франции Supreme Court или Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
Мексика Supreme Court of Justice или Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (justices или ministros are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)
Микронезия Supreme Court
Молдавия Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Монако Supreme Court или Tribunal Supreme (judges appointed by the monarch on the basis of nominations by the National Council)
Монголия Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's и provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts и approved by the president)
Монтенегро Constitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Сент-Люсия, один judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands и presides over the High Court)
Мороккo Supreme Court (judges are appointed on the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Judiciary, presided over by the monarch)
Мозамбик Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its специалисты judges are appointed by the president и some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
примечание: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, один has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Намибия Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission)
Науру Supreme Court
Непал Supreme Court или Sarbochha Adalat (chief justice is appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Constitutional Council; the other judges are appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Judicial Council)
Нидерланды Supreme Court или Hoge Raad (justices are nominated for life by the monarch)
Нидерландские Антильские о-ва Joint High Court of Justice (judges appointed by the monarch)
Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции Court of Appeal или Cour d'Appel; County Courts; Joint Commerce Tribunal Court; Children's Court
Новая Зеландия Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - judges appointed by the Governor-General
Никарагуа Supreme Court или Corte Suprema de Justicia (16 judges elected for five-year terms by the National Assembly)
Нигер State Court или Cour d'Etat; Court of Appeals или Cour d'Appel
Нигерия Supreme Court (judges appointed by the Президент); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Ниуэ Supreme Court Новой Зеландии; High Court Ниуэ
Норфолк Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions
Северные Марианские острова Commonwealth Supreme Court; Superior Court; Federal District Court
Норвегия Supreme Court или Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
Оман Supreme Court
примечание: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has judges who practice secular и Sharia law
Пакистан Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic или Shari'a Court
Палау Supreme Court; Court of Common Pleas; Land Court
Панама Supreme Court of Justice или Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed for 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal
Папуа — Новая Гвинея Supreme Court (the chief justice is appointed by the governor general on the proposal of the National Executive Council после consultation with the minister responsible for justice; other judges are appointed by the Judicial и Legal Services Commission)
Парагвай Supreme Court of Justice или Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed on the proposal of the Council of Magistrates или Consejo de la Magistratura)
Перу Supreme Court of Justice или Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Филиппины Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial и Bar Council и serve until 70 лет of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)
Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании Magistrate's Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Judicial Officers are appointed by the Governor
Польша Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period); Constitutional Tribunal (judges are chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms)
Португалия Supreme Court или Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Пуэрто-Рико Supreme Court; Appellate Court; Court of First Instance composed of two sections: a Superior Court и a Municipal Court (justices for all these courts appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate)
Катар Courts of First Instance, Appeal, и Cassation; an Administrative Court и a Constitutional Court were established in 2007; note - all judges are appointed by Amiri Decree based on the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council for renewable three-year terms
Румыния Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, и 14 judges и prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections и makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, и internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, и the Chamber of Deputies
Россия Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Supreme Arbitration Court; judges for all courts are appointed for life by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the president
Руанда Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees
Святой Елены остров Magistrate's Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Сент-Китс и Невис Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Сент-Люсия; один judge of the Supreme Court resides in Сент-Китс и Невис )
Сент-Люсия Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (jurisdiction extends to Ангилья, Антигуа и Барбуда, the Британские Виргинские острова, Доминика, Гренада, Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании, Сент-Китс и Невис , Сент-Люсия, и Сент-Винсент и Гренадины)
Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции Superior Tribunal of Appeals или Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
Сент-Винсент и Гренадины Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based on Сент-Люсия; один judge of the Supreme Court resides in Сент-Винсент и Гренадины)
Самоа Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; District Court; Land и Titles Court
Сан-Маринo Council of Twelve или Consiglio dei XII
Сан-Томе и Принсипи Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the National Assembly)
Саудовская Аравия Supreme Council of Justice
Сенегал Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals или Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
Сербия Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (to become court of cassation under new constitution), appellate courts, district courts, municipal courts
Сейшельские Острова Court of Appeal; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
Сьерра-Леоне Supreme Court; Appeals Court; High Court
Сингапур Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
Словакия Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges и appointed by president)
Словения Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly и nominated by the president)
Соломоновы Острова Court of Appeal
Сомали following the breakdown of the central government, most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, или Shari'a (Islamic) law with a provision for appeal of all sentences
Южно-Африканская Республика Constitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts
Испания Supreme Court или Tribunal Supremo
Шри-Ланка Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; judges for both courts are appointed by the president
Судан Constitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
Суринам Cantonal Courts и a Court of Justice as an appellate court (justices are nominated for life)
Свазиленд High Court; Supreme Court; judges for both courts are appointed by the monarch
Швеция Supreme Court или Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister и the cabinet)
Швейцария Federal Supreme Court (judges elected for six-year terms by the Federal Assembly)
Сирия Supreme Judicial Council (appoints и dismisses judges; headed by the president); national level - Supreme Constitutional Court (adjudicates electoral disputes и rules on constitutionality of laws и decrees; justices appointed for four-year terms by the Президент); Court of Cassation; Appeals Courts (Appeals Courts represent an intermediate level between the Court of Cassation и local level courts); local level - Magistrate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Juvenile Courts; Customs Courts; specialized courts - Economic Security Courts (hear cases related to economic crimes); Supreme State Security Court (hear cases related to national security); Personal Status Courts (religious; hear cases related to marriage и divorce)
Тайвань Judicial Yuan (justices appointed by the president with consent of the Legislative Yuan)
Таджикистан Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Танзания Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice и four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi и 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction и appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Таиланд Supreme Court или Sandika (judges appointed by the monarch)
Восточный Тимор Supreme Court of Justice - constitution calls for один judge to be appointed by National Parliament и rest appointed by Superior Council for Judiciary; note - until Supreme Court is established, Court of Appeals is highest court
Того Court of Appeal или Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court или Cour Supreme
Токелау Supreme Court in Новая Зеландия exercises civil и criminal jurisdiction in Токелау
Тонга Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (Chief Justice и high court justices from overseas chosen и approved by Privy Council)
Тринидад и Тобаго Supreme Court of Judicature (comprised of the High Court of Justice и the Court of Appeals; the chief justice is appointed by the president после consultation with the prime minister и the leader of the opposition; other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial и Legal Service Commission); High Court of Justice; Caribbean Court of Appeals member; Court of Appeals; the highest court of appeal is the Privy Council in London
Тунис Court of Cassation или Cour de Cassation
Турция Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Армия High Court of Appeals; Армия High Administrative Court
Туркменистан Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Тёркс и Кайкос Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Тувалу High Court (a chief justice visits twice a year to preside over its sessions; its rulings can be appealed to the Court of Appeal in Фиджи); eight Island Courts (with limited jurisdiction)
Угадна Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president и approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Украина Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
Объединенные Арабские Эмираты Union Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Великобритания House of Lords (highest court of appeal; several Lords of Appeal in Ordinary are appointed by the monarch for life); Supreme Courts of England, Wales, и Northern Ирландия (comprising the Courts of Appeal, the High Courts of Justice, и the Crown Courts); Scotland's Court of Session и Court of the Justiciary
США Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president и confirmed with the advice и consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); США Courts of Appeal; США District Courts; State и County Courts
Уругвай Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president и elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
Узбекистан Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president и confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Вануату Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president после consultation with the prime minister и the leader of the opposition, three other justices are appointed by the president on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission)
Венесуэлa Supreme Tribunal of Justice или Tribuna Suprema de Justicia (magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term)
Вьетнам Supreme Люди's Court (chief justice is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president)
Виргинские Острова (Британские) US District Court of the Виргинские Острова (Британские) (under Third Circuit jurisdiction); Superior Court of the Виргинские Острова (Британские) (judges appointed by the governor for 10-year terms)
Уоллис и Футуна justice generally administered under French law by the high administrator, but the three traditional kings administer customary law и there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu; a court of appeal is located in Noumea, Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции
Емен Supreme Court
Замбия Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil и criminal cases)
Зимбабве Supreme Court; High Court

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


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