The Мир Factbook CIA На главную CIA На главную About CIA Careers Offices of CIA News & Information Library Kid’s Page Contact CIA CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

  Список стран- Political pressure groups и leaders


Страна
Political pressure groups и leaders
Афганистан другое: religious groups; tribal leaders
Албания Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade Unions Албании или KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian National Unification или FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions Албании или BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
Алжир The Algerian Human Rights League или LADDH [Hocine ZEHOUANE]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]
Американское Самоа Население: Pressure LAS (addresses the growing population pressures)
Андорра нет
Ангола Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda или FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
Ангилья нет
Антигуа и Барбуда Antigua Trades и Labor Union или ATLU [William ROBINSON]; Люди's Democratic Movement или PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Аргентина Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Confederation или CRA (small to medium landowners' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); Central of Argentine Workers или CTA (a radical union for employed и unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor или CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church
другое: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro или anti-government); students
Армения Aylentrank (Impeachment) [Nikol PASHINYAN]; Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]
Аруба другое: environmental groups
Австралия другое: business groups; enviromental groups; social groups; trade unions
Австрия Austrian Trade Union Federation или OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic); Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists или IV; католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
другое: three composite leagues of the Austrian Люди's Party или OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, и other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment и human rights
Азербайджан Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (self-proclaimed); Karabakh Liberation Organization; Sadval, Lezgin movement; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces или UPAF
Багамские Острова, The Friends of the Environment
другое: trade unions
Бахрейн Shi'a activists; Sunni Islamist legislators
другое: several small leftist и other groups are active
Бангладеш Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's и Children's Affairs)
другое: environmentalists; Islamist groups; religious leaders; teachers; union leaders
Барбадос Барбадос Secondary Teachers' Union или BSTU [Patrick FROST]; Барбадос Union of Teachers или BUT [Herbert GITTENS]; Congress of Trade Unions и Staff Associations Барбадоса или CTUSAB, (включая the BWU, NUPW, BUT, и BSTU) [Leroy TROTMAN]; Барбадос Workers Union или BWU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]; National Union of Public Workers [Joseph GODDARD]
Беларусь Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]; Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Tatiana PROTKO]; Belarusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV]; For Freedom (unregistered) [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]; Lenin Communist Union of Youth (youth wing of the Belarusian Party of Communists или PKB); National Strike Committee of Entrepreneurs [Aleksandr VASILYEV, Valery LEVONEVSKY]; Partnership NGO [Nikolay ASTREYKA]; Perspektiva kiosk watchdog NGO [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]; Vyasna [Ales BYALATSKY]; Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Dmitriy DASHKEVICH, Sergey BAKHUN]; Zubr youth group [Vladimir KOBETS]
Бельгия Christian, Socialist, и Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries
другое: numerous other associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, и the legal и medical professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders и Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi и groups representing immigrants
Белиз Society for the Promotion of Education и Research или SPEAR [Gustavo PERERA]; Association of Concerned Belizeans или ACB [David VASQUEZ]; National Trade Union Congress Белиза или NTUC/B [Rene GOMEZ]
Бенин другое: economic groups; environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions и other educational groups
Бермуды Бермуды Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Бермуды Industrial Union или BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Бермуды Public Services Union или BPSU [Ed BALL]; Бермуды Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
Бутан United Front for Democracy (exiled)
другое: буддисты clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community
Боливия Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers Боливии или CSUTCB
другое: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations; labor unions
Босния и Герцеговина другое: displaced persons associations; student councils; war veterans
Ботсвана First Люди of the Kalahari (Bushman organization); Pitso Ya Ba Tswana; Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)
другое: diamond добыча полезных ископаемых companies
Бразилия Landless Workers' Movement или MST
другое: labor unions и federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches и the Catholic Church
Британские Виргинские острова The Family Support Network; The Women's Desk
другое: environmentalists
Бруней нет
Болгария Confederation of Independent Trade Unions Болгарии или CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation
другое: numerous regional, ethnic, и national interest groups with various agendas
Буркина Фасо Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor или CGTB [Tole SAGNON]; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights или MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]; Group of 14 February [Benewende STANISLAS]; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers или CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO]; National Organization of Free Unions или ONSL [Paul KABORE]
другое: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations и communities
Мьянма Ethnic Nationalities Council или ENC (based in Таиланд); Federation of Trade Unions-Мьянма или FTUB (exile trade union и labor advocates); National Coalition Правление of the Union Мьянмы или NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile) ["Премьер Министр" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some legitimately elected to the Люди's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled to a border area и joined insurgents in December 1990 to form parallel government in exile); Kachin Independence Organization или KIO; Karen National Union или KNU; Karenni National Люди's Party или KNPP; National Council-Union Мьянмы или NCUB (exile coalition of opposition groups); United Wa State Army или UWSA; Union Solidarity и Development Association или USDA (pro-regime, a social и political mass-member organization) [HTAY OO, general secretary]; 88 Generation Students (pro-democracy movement) [MIN KO NAING]
другое: several Shan factions
Бурунди Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques или OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group)
другое: Hutu и Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
Камбоджа Cambodian Freedom Fighters или CFF; Partnership for Transparency Fund или PTF (anti-corruption organization); Students Movement for Democracy; The Committee for Free и Fair Elections или Comfrel
другое: human rights organizations; vendors
Камерун Human Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]; Southern Камерун National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]
Канада другое: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; энергия industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions
Кабо-Верде другое: environmentalists; political pressure groups
Каймановы Острoва National Trust
другое: environmentalists
Центральноафриканская Республика Monam (combatting gender-base violence)
Чад rebel groups
Чили католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church; United Labor Central или CUT включая trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations
другое: revitalized university student federations at all major universities
Китай the Китай Democracy Party; the Falungong spiritual movement
примечание: no substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the organizations listed above as subversive groups
Рождества Остров none
Кокосовые Острова The Cocos Islands Youth Support Centre
Колумбия National Liberation Army или ELN; Revolutionary Armed Forces Колумбии или FARC
примечание: two largest insurgent groups active in Колумбия
Коморские Острова другое: environmentalists
Congo, Democratic Республика the MONUC - UN organization working with the government; FARDC (Forces Armees de la Republique du Congo) - Army of the Democratic Республика the Congo which commits atrocities on citizens; FDLA (Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Руанда) - Rwandan militia group
Congo, Республика the Congolese Trade Union Congress или CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils и Students или UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women или URFC; Union of Congolese Socialist Youth или UJSC
Острова Кука Reform Conference (lobby for poltical system changes)
другое: various groups lobbying for political change
Коста-Рика Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers или CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers или CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers или CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Costa Rican Exporter's Chamber или CADEXCO; Costa Rican Solidarity Movement; Costa Rican Union of Private Sector Enterprises или UCCAEP [Rafael CARRILLO]; Federation of Public Service Workers или FTSP; National Association for Economic Development или ANFE; National Association of Educators или ANDE; National Association of Public и Private Employees или ANEP [Albino VARGAS]; Rerum Novarum или CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert BROWN]
Кот-д’Ивуар Federation of University и High School Students Кот-д’Ивуара или FESCI [Serges KOFFI]; Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy и Peace или RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]; Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE]
Хорватия другое: human rights groups
Куба Human Rights Watch; National Association of Small Farmers
Кипр Confederation of Cypriot Workers или SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions или Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions или Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation или PEO (Communist controlled)
Чешская республика Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions или CMKOS [Milan STECH]
Дания Danish Free Press Society (freedom of speech); Danish National Socialist Movement или DNSB [Jonni HANSEN] (neo-Nazi organization)
другое: human rights groups
Джибути Union for Presidential Majority UMP (coalition включая RPP, FRUD, PPSD и PND); Union for Democratic Changeover или UAD (opposition coalition включая ARD, MRDD, и UDJ)
Доминика Доминика Liberation Movement или DLM (a small leftist party)
Доминиканская республика Citizen Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania); Collective of Popular Organizations или COP; Foundation for Institution-Building и Justice (FINJUS)
Эквадор Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities Эквадора или CONAIE [Marlon SANTI, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements или CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists Эквадора или FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos и Peasants или FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]
Египет мусульмане Brotherhood (technically illegal)
примечание: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties и political activity, the technically illegal мусульмане Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition
Сальвадор labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union Сальвадора или SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport и other activities, или FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers или CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers или UNTS; Port Industry Union Сальвадора или SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros и Peasant Workers или USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central или CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation или STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise или ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association или ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association или ASI
Экваториальная Гвинея ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform); Global Witness (anti-corruption)
Эритрея Eritrean демократическая партия (EDP) [HAGOS, Mesfin]; Eritrean Islamic Jihad или EIJ (включая Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement или EIJM also known as the Abu Sihel Movement); Eritrean Islamic Salvation или EIS (also known as the Arafa Movement); Eritrean Liberation Front или ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean National Alliance или ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF, и a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Eritrean Public Forum или EPF [ARADOM Iyob]
Эстония Nochnoy Dozor/Night Watch anti-fascist movement (leader Alexander KOROBOV)
Эфиопия Ethiopian Люди's Patriotic Front или EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front или ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front или OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова Falkland Islands Association (supports freedom of the people from external causes)
Фарерские Острова Sea Shepard [Paul WATSON] (preservation of small whales)
другое: conservationists
Фиджи Group Against Racial Discrimination или GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (for restoration of a democratic government); Viti Landowners Association
Франция Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail или CFDT, left-leaning labor union with approximately 803,000 members; Confederation Generale des Cadres или CGC, independent белые-collar union with 196,000 members; Confederation Generale du Travail или CGT, historically communist labor union with approximately 700,000 members; Confederation Generale du Travail - Force Ouvriere или FO, independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members; Mouvement des Entreprises de Франция или MEDEF, employers' union with 750,000 companies as members (claimed)
French Guiana: conservationists; золото добыча полезных ископаемых pressure groups; hunting pressure groups
Guadeloupe: Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe или KLPG; General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers или CGT-G; General Union of Guadeloupe Workers или UGTG; Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe или MPGI; The Socialist Renewal Movement
Martinique: Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance или ARC; Central Union for Martinique Workers или CSTM; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers и Peasants; Proletarian Action Group или GAP
Reunion: нет
Французская Полинезия нет
Габон нет
Гамбия National Environment Agency или NEA; West African Peace Building Network-Gambian Chapter или WANEB-GAMBIA; Youth Employment Network Gambia или YENGambia
другое: special needs group advocates; teachers и principals
Грузия другое: Georgian independent deputies from Abkhaz government in exile; separatists in the breakaway regions of Abkhazia и South Ossetia
Германия другое: business associations и employers' organizations; religious, trade unions, immigrant, expellee, и veterans groups
Гана Christian Aid (water rights); Committee for Joint Action или CJA (education reform); National Coalition Against the Privatisation of Water или CAP (water rights); Oxfam (water rights); Public Citizen (water rights); Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform); Third Мир Network (education reform)
Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании Chamber of Commerce; Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании Representatives Organization; Women's Association
Греция Civil Servants Confederation или ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]; Federation of Greek Industries или SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]; General Confederation of Greek Workers или GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
Гренландия другое: conservationists; environmentalists
Гренада Committee for Human Rights in Гренада или CHRG; New Jewel Movement Support Group; The British Гренада Friendship Society; The New Jewel 19 Committee
Гуам Гуам Federation of Teachers' Union; Гуам Waterworks Authority Workers
другое: activists; indigenous groups
Гватемала Agrarian Owners Group или UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity или AAI; Committee for Campesino Unity или CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, и Financial Associations или CACIF; Mutual Support Group или GAM
Гернси: коронная земля Великобритании Stop Traffic Endangering Pedestrian Safety или STEPS; No More Masts [Colin FALLAIZE]
Гвинея National Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers или CNTG-USTG Alliance (включая National Confederation of Guinean Workers или CNTG [Rabiatou Sarah DIALLO] и Labor Union of Guinean Workers или USTG [Dr. Ibrahima FOFANA]); National Council of Civil Society Organizations Гвинеи или CNOSCG [Ben Sekou SYLLA]; Syndicate of Guinean Teachers и Researchers или SLECG [Dr. Louis M'Bemba SOUMAH]
Гвинея-Бисау нет
Гвиана Amerindian Люди's Association; Гвиана Bar Association; Гвиана Citizens Initiative; Гвиана Human Rights Association; Гвиана Public Service Union или GPSU; Private Sector Commission; Trades Union Congress
Гаити Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers или CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers или CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions или FOS; General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]; Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, или KOREGA; National Popular Assembly или APN; Papaye Peasants Movement или MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power или PROP; протестанты Federation Гаити; католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church
Ватикан none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Гондурас Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Гондурас или CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers или CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations или CCOP; General Workers Confederation или CGT; Honduran Council of Private Enterprise или COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos или ANACH; National Union of Campesinos или UNC; Popular Bloc или BP; United Confederation of Honduran Workers или CUTH
Гонконг Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (pro-Китай); Chinese Manufacturers' Association Гонконга; Confederation of Trade Unions или CTU (pro-democracy) [LAU Chin-shek, president; LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation Гонконга Industries; Federation of Trade Unions или FTU (pro-Китай) [CHENG Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Гонконг Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement in Китай [Szeto WAH, chairman]; Гонконг и Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Тайвань); Гонконг General Chamber of Commerce; Гонконг Professional Teachers' Union [CHEUNG Man-kwong, president]; Neighborhood и Workers' Service Center или NWSC (pro-democracy); The Alliance [Bernard CHARNWUT, exco member]
Венгрия Air Work Group (works to reduce air pollution in towns и cities); Company For Freedom Rights (Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) или TASZ (personal data protection); Danube Circle (protests the building of the Gabchikovo-Nagymaros dam); Green Future (protests the impact of свинец contamination of local factory on health of the people); environmentalists: Hungarian Ornithological и Nature Conservation Society (Magyar Madartani Egyesulet)или MME; Green Alternative (Zold Alternativa)
Исландия Icelandic Psychiatric Human Rights Group
Индия All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group); Bajrang Dal (religious organization); National Socialist Council of Nagaland in the northeast (separatist group); Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (religious organization); Vishwa Hindu Parishad (religious organization
другое: numerous religious или militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal и/или regional autonomy
Индонeзия Indonesian Women's Coalition (Koalisi Perempuan - human rights group); Islamic Defenders Front или FPI; National Alliance for Freedom of Relgion и Faith; Oil Palm Watch (environmental)
Иран groups that generally support the Islamic Republic: Ansar-e Hizballah-Islamic Coalition Party (Motalefeh); Followers of the Line of the Imam и the Leader; Islamic Engineers Society; Tehran Militant Clergy Association (Ruhaniyat); active pro-reform student group: Office of Strengthening Unity (OSU); opposition groups: Baluchistan Люди's Party (BPP); Freedom Movement Ирана; Marz-e Por Gohar; National Front; и various ethnic и Monarchist organizations; armed political groups that have been repressed by the government: демократическая партия of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI); Jundallah; Komala; Mujahidin-e Khalq Organization (MEK или MKO); Люди's Fedayeen; Люди's Free Life Party of Kurdistan (PJAK)
Ирак Sunni militias; Shia militias, some associated with political parties
Ирландия Families Acting for Innocent Relatives или FAIR [Brian McCONNELL] (seek compensation for victims of violence); Families Against Intimidation и Terror или FAIT (oppose terrorism); Gaeltacht Civil Rights Campaign (Coiste Cearta Sibhialta na Gaeilge) или CCSG (encourages the use of the Irish language и campaigns for greater civil rights in Irish speaking areas); Irish Republican Army или IRA (terrorist group); Keep Ирландия Open (environmental group); Midland Railway Aciton Group или MRAG [Willie ALLEN] (транспорт promoters); Rail Users Ирландия (formerly the Platform 11 - транспорт promoters); 32 Страна Sovereignty Movement или 32CSM (supports a fully sovereign Ирландия); Ulster Defence Association или UDA (terrorist group)
Остров Мэн Alliance for Progressive Правление или APG (a government watchdog); Mec Vannin (political party advocating a sovereign state и environment policies); note - has only had один member elected to the Tynwald
Израиль B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director] monitors human rights abuses; Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial concessions in the Западный берег Иордании и Сектор Газa; YESHA Council of Settlements [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests и opposes territorial compromise
Италия manufacturers и merchants associations - Confcommercio; Confindustria; organized farm groups - Confcoltivatori; Confagricoltura; католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church; three major trade union confederations - Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro или CGIL [Guglielmo EPIFANI] which is left wing; Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori или CISL [Raffaele BONANNO], which is католики (Римская Католическая церковь) centrist; Unione Italiana del Lavoro или UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist)
Ямайка New Beginnings Movement или NBM; Rastafarians (черные religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
Япония другое: business groups; trade unions
Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании Institute of Directors, Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании branch (provides business support); Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании Hospitality Association [Robert JONES] (trade association); Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights); La Societe Jersiaise (education и conservation group); Progress Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании [Darius J. PEARCE, Daren O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI] (human rights); Royal Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании Agriculture и Horitcultural Society или RJA&HS (development и management of the Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании breed of cattle); Save Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании's Heritage (protects heritage through building preservation)
Иордания Anti-Normalization Committee [Ali Abu SUKKAR, president vice chairman]; Иордания Bar Association [Hussein Mujalli, chairman]; Jordanian Press Association [Sayf al-SHARIF, president]; мусульмане Brotherhood [Salem AL-FALAHAT, controller general]
Казахстан Adil-Soz [Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Group [Ninel FOKINA]; Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For a Just Казахстан [Bolat ABILOV]; For Fair Elections [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV]; Казахстан Международные Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, executive director]; Pan-National Social демократическая партия Казахстана [Zharmakhan TUYAKBAI]; Pensioners Movement или Pokoleniye [Irina SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of Международные Monitors [Dos KUSHIM]; Transparency Международные [Sergei ZLOTNIKOV]
Кения Council of Islamic Preachers Кении или CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]; Кения Human Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]; мусульмане Human Rights Forum [Ali-Amin KIMATHI]; National Convention Executive Council или NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties и nongovernment organizations [Ndung'u WAINANA]; протестанты National Council of Churches Кении или NCCK [Canon Peter Karanja MWANGI]; католики (Римская Католическая церковь) и другие христиане churches; Supreme Council Кении Muslims или SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
другое: labor unions
Кирибати нет
Северная Корея none
Южная Корея Federation of Korean Industries; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches; Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of Student Associations
Косовo Council for the Defense of Human Rights и Freedom (human rights); Humanitarian Law Centre (human rights); Movement for Self-Determination; Serb National Council (SNV)
Кювейт другое: Islamists; merchants; political groups; secular liberals и pro-governmental deputies; Shia activists; tribal groups
Киргизия Adilet Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]; Coalition for Democracy и Civil Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]; Interbilim [Asiya SASYKBAYEVA]
Лаоc нет
Латвия Headquarters for the Protection of Russian Schools (SHTAB) [Aleksandr KAZAKOV]
Ливан Hizballah military wing
другое: Palestinain militias; Maronite Christians; Sunnis и their militias; Shi'as и their militias
Лесото Media Institute of Southern Africa, Лесото chapter [Thabang MATJAMA] (pushes for media freedom)
Либерия другое: demobilized former military officers
Либия другое: Arab nationalist movements; anti-QADHAFI Libyan exile Movement; Islamic elements
Лихтенштейн нет
Литва Europe House (promotes the EU); European Movement (promotes the EU); Lithuanian Future Forum (promotes the EU)
Люксембург ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (федерация of agricultural producers); CEP (специалисты sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (федерация of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
Macau Macau Society of Tourism и Entertainment или STDM [Stanley HO] (political pressure group); католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong] (political pressure group)
Македония Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; Trade Union of Education, Science и Culture [Dojcin CVETANOSKI]; Мир Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
Мадагаскар Committee for the Defense of Truth и Justice или KMMR; Committee for National Reconciliation или CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches или FFKM
Малави Agri-Ecology Media (agriculture и environmental group); Малави Law Society (human rights); Малави Movement for the Restoration of Democracy или MMRD (acts to restore и maintain democracy); National Democratic Alliance или NDA (acts to restore democracy; Public Affairs Committee или PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace и unity)
Малазия Bersih (electoral reform); Sharia High Court
другое: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
Мальдивы другое: various unregistered political parties
Мали другое: the army; Islamic authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run хлопок company CMDT; tauregs
Мальта Alleanza Liberal-Demokratika Maltra ro ALDM (against illegal immigration); Alleanza Nazzionali Repubblikana или ANR (encourages tourism); Alternattiva Demokratika (campaign to reform rent law, и other campaigns); Azzjoni Nazzjonali или AN (freedom to participate in democratic government); Ghazdatal-Konsumaturi (consumer rights); Nazi Watch Мальта (exposing Nazis)
другое: environmentalists
Маршалловы Острова нет
Мавритания General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers или CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED, secretary general]; Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers или CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]; Mauritanian Workers Union или UTM [Mohamed Ely Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]
другое: Arab nationalists; Ba'thists; Islamists
Маврикий другое: various labor unions
Майотта: заморская территория Франции нет
Мексика Broad Progressive Front или FAP; Businessmen's Coordinating Council или CCE; Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic или COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers или CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers или CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce или CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations или COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods и Services или FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries или CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation или CNC; National Small Business Chamber или CANACOPE; National Syndicate of Education Workers или SNTE; National Union of Workers или UNT; Popular Assembly of the Люди of Oaxaca или APPO; католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church
Микронезия нет
Молдавия нет
Монако нет
Монголия другое: human rights groups; women's groups
Монтенегро Network of Women Against Violence; National Feminist Committee или CNF [Sofia MONTENEGRO]; Citizen Movement of MC [Sofia MONTENEGRO]
Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании нет
Мороккo Democratic Confederation of Labor или CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of Moroccan Workers или UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers Association или CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union Мороккo или UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers или UMT [Mahjoub BENSEDDIK]
Мозамбик Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Human Rights и Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) или DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]; Institute for Peace и Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) или IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Movement for Peace и Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) или LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
Намибия Earthlife Намибия [Berthchen KOHRS] (environmentalist group); National Society for Human Rights или NSHR; The Мир Information Services of Energy или WISE (group against nuclear power)
Науру Woman Information и News Agency (women's issues)
Непал другое: several small armed Madhesi groups along the southern border with Индия; a variety of groups advocating regional autonomy for individual ethnic groups
Нидерланды Christian Trade Union Federation или CNV [Rene PAAS]; Confederation Нидерландов Industry и Employers или VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES]; Federation for Small и Medium-sized businesses или MKB [Loek HERMANS]; Нидерланды Trade Union Federation или FNV [Agnes JONGERIUS]; Social Economic Council или SER [Alexander RINNOOY Kan]; Trade Union Federation of Middle и High Personnel или MHP [Ad VERHOEVEN]
Нидерландские Антильские о-ва Employers Association (VBC); Unions (AVBO)
Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции нет
Новая Зеландия Women's Electoral Lobby или WEL
другое: apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear weapons groups; women's rights groups
Никарагуа National Workers Front или FNT (a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions including: Farm Workers Association или ATC, Health Workers Federation или FETASALUD, Heroes и Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations или CONAPRO, National Association of Educators Никарагуа или ANDEN, National Union of Employees или UNE, National Union of Farmers и Ranchers или UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central или CST, и Union of Journalists Никарагуа или UPN); Permanent Congress of Workers или CPT (an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including: Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central или CTN-A, Confederation of Labor Unification или CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor или CGT-I, и Labor Action и Unity Central или CAUS); Nicaraguan Workers' Central или CTN (an independent labor union); Superior Council of Private Enterprise или COSEP (a confederation of business groups)
Нигер The Nigerien Movement for Justice или MNJ, a predominantly Tuareg rebel group
Нигерия Academic Staff Union for Universities или ASUU; Campaign for Democrary или CD; Civil Liberties Organization или CLO; Committee for the Defense of Human Rights или CDHR; Constitutional Right Project или CRP; Human Right Africa; National Association of Democratic Lawyers или NADL; National Association of Nigerian Students или NANS; Nigerian Bar Association или NBA; Nigerian Labor Congress или NLC; Nigerian Medical Association или NMA; the Press; Universal Defenders of Democracy или UDD
Ниуэ нет
Норфолк none
Северные Марианские острова нет
Норвегия Norwegian Aid Committee или NORWAC; Norwegian Association of the Disabled; Pure Salmon Campaign; The Consumer Council (consumer advocacy group)
другое: environmental groups; media; reform movements
Оман none
Пакистан другое: military (most important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
Палау нет
Панама Chamber of Commerce; National Civic Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers или CONATO; National Council of Private Enterprise или CONEP; National Union of Construction и Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); Panamanian Association of Business Executives или APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society или SIP; Workers Confederation of the Республика Панама или CTRP
Папуа — Новая Гвинея Ahora [Andrew MAMOKO] (represents local tribes); Centre for Environment Law и Community Rights или Celcor [Damien ASE]; Community Coalition Against Corruption
Парагвай Ahorristas Estafados или AE; National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations или MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]; National Federation of Campesinos или FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]; National Workers Central или CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]; Paraguayan Workers Confederation или CPT; католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church; Unitary Workers Central или CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
Перу Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group); Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement или MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
Филиппины AKBAYAN [Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, и Risa HONTIVEROS-BARAQUIEL]; ALAGAD [Rodante MARROLITA]; ALIF [Acmad TOMAWIS]; An Waray [Horencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Crispin BELTRAN и Rafael MARIANO]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Sunny Rose MADAMBA, Ernesto PABLO, и Edgar VALDEZ]; AVE [Eulogio MAGSAYSAY]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO, Joel VIRADOR, и Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE и Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Guillermo CUA]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA]; Partido Ng Manggagawa [Renato MAGTUBO]; Veterans Federation of the Филиппины [Ernesto GIDAYA]
Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании none
Польша All Польша Trade Union Alliance или OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]; католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK]; Solidarity Trade Union [Janusz SNIADEK]
Португалия the media
Пуэрто-Рико Boricua Popular Army или EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros); note - the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces for National Liberation или FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution
Катар none
Румыния другое: various human rights и специалисты associations
Россия Levada Center (conducts polls); Memorial (human rights group; Movement Against Illegal Migration; Pamjat (preservation of historical monuments и recording of history); Russian Orthrodox Church; Russian-Chechen Friendship Society
другое: ecology groups; human rights groups; nationalist pragmatists (no foreign influence over Central Eurasia); neo-Eurasianists (against Western influence for the area); religious groups; westernizers (lean towards the West)
Руанда IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
Сен-Бартельми The Marine Reserve (protection of рыба); Rotary Club
Святой Елены остров другое: private sector; unions
Сент-Китс и Невис нет
Сент-Люсия нет
Saint Martin нет
Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции нет
Сент-Винсент и Гренадины нет
Самоа нет
Сан-Маринo нет
Сан-Томе и Принсипи Association Сан-Томе и Принсипи NGOs или FONG
другое: the media
Саудовская Аравия Ansar Al Marah (supports women's rights)
другое: газ companies; religious groups
Сенегал другое: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides и Tidjanes; teachers
Сербия нет
Сейшельские Острова католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church
другое: trade unions
Сьерра-Леоне другое: student unions; trade unions
Сингапур UNFEM [Saleeman ISMAIL]
другое: investment companies; news organizations
Словакия Association of Towns и Villages или ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions или KOZ; Entrepreneurs Association Словакии или ZPS; Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; National Union of Employers или RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce и Industry или SOPK; The Business Alliance Словакии или PAS
Словения демократическая партия of Slovenian Pensioners или DeSUS (protecting the rights of the older generation); Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC]
другое: Catholic Church
Соломоновы Острова Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM); Malaita Eagle Force (MEF); note - these rival armed ethnic factions crippled the Соломоновы Острова in a wave of violence from 1999 to 2003
Сомали другое: numerous clan и sub-clan factions exist both in support и in opposition to the transitional government
Южно-Африканская Республика Congress of South African Trade Unions или COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; South African Communist Party или SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; South African National Civics Organization или SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]
примечание: note - COSATU и SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC
Испания Association for Victims of Terrorism или AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks и supporting its victims); Basta Ya (испанский for "Enough is Enough"; grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks и supporting its victims); Nunca Mais (Galician for "Never Again"; formed in response to the нефть Tanker Prestige нефть spill); Socialist General Union of Workers или UGT и the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union или USO; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions или CC.OO.
другое: business и landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
Шри-Ланка Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam или LTTE [Velupillai PRABHAKARAN](insurgent group fighting for a separate state); Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) или Karuna Faction [Vinayagamurthi MURALITHARAN] (paramilitary breakaway from LTTE и fighting LTTE)
другое: буддисты clergy; labor unions; radical chauvinist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese буддисты lay groups
Судан Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party или PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
Суринам Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]; Association of Saramaccan Authorities или Maroon [Head Captain WASE]; Women's Parliament Forum или PVF [Iris GILLIAD]
Свальбард нет
Свазиленд Свазиленд Federation of Trade Unions; Свазиленд и Solidarity Network или SSN
Швеция Children's Rights in Society; Central Association of Salarited Emplyees или TCO; Swedish Federation of Trade Unions или LO
другое: media
Швейцария нет
Сирия Damascus Declaration National Council [Riyad SEIF, secretary general] (a broad alliance of opposition groups и individuals including: Committee for Revival of Civil Society [Michel KILO, Riyad SEIF], Communist Action Party [Fateh JAMOUS], Kurdish Democratic Alliance, Kurdish Democratic Front, Liberal Nationalists' Movement, National Democratic Front, National Democratic Rally, и Syrian Human Rights Society или HRAS [Fawed FAWUZ]); National Salvation Front (alliance between former Vice Президент Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, the SMB, и other small opposition groups); Syrian мусульмане Brotherhood или SMB [Sadr al-Din al-BAYANUNI] (operates in exile in London; endorsed the Damascus Declaration, but is not an official member)
Тайвань Organization for Тайвань Nation Building; Мир United Formosans for Independence
другое: environmental groups; independence movement; various business groups
примечание: debate on Тайвань independence has become acceptable within the mainstream of domestic politics on Тайвань; political liberalization и the increased representation of opposition parties in Тайвань's legislature have opened public debate on the island's national identity; a broad popular consensus has developed that the island currently enjoys sovereign independence и - whatever the ultimate outcome regarding reunification или independence - that Тайвань's people must have the deciding voice; public opinion polls consistently show a substantial majority Тайвани people supports maintaining Тайвань's status quo for the foreseeable future; advocates Тайвани independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually unify with mainland Китай; goals of the Тайвань independence movement include establishing a sovereign nation on Тайвань и entering the UN
Таджикистан Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV] (unregistered political party); демократическая партия или DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from Iskanderov's DPT); Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Socialist Party или SPT [Abdualim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from Narziyev's SPT); Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
другое: splinter parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party; unregistered political parties
Танзания нет
Таиланд нет
Того нет
Токелау none
Тонга Human Rights и Democracy Movement Тонга или HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]; Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
Тринидад и Тобаго Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin BAKR]
Тунис 18 October Group [collective leadership]; Tunisian League for Human Rights или LTDH [Mokhtar TRIFI]; note - the Islamist party, Al Nahda (Renaissance), is outlawed
Турция Confederation of Public Sector Unions или KESK [Ismail Hakki TOMBUL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions или DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' и Businessmen's Association или MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union или Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions или TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor или Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen и Craftsmen или TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' и Businessmen's Association или TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce и Commodity Exchanges или TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Туркменистан нет
Тёркс и Кайкос нет
Тувалу none
Угадна
Украина Committee of Voters Украины [Ihor POPOV]; Peoples' Self-Defense [Yuriy LUTSENKO]
Объединенные Арабские Эмираты нет
Великобритания Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
США нет
Уругвай Architect's Society Уругвая (специалисты organization); Chamber of Uruguayan Industries (manufacturer's association); Chemist и Pharmaceutical Association (специалисты organization); PIT/CNT (powerful федерация of Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization); Rural Association Уругвая (rancher's association); Uruguayan Construction League; Uruguayan Network of Political Women
другое: Catholic Church; students
Узбекистан Agrarian и Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) демократическая партия [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] (was banned 9 December 1992); Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party или Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society Узбекистана [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization Узбекистана [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
Вануату нет
Венесуэлa FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers или CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action)
Вьетнам 8406 Bloc; демократическая партия Вьетнама или DPV; Люди's демократическая партия Вьетнам или PDP-VN; Alliance for Democracy
примечание: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
Виргинские Острова (Британские) нет
Уоллис и Футуна нет
Западная Сахара none
Емен нет
Замбия нет
Зимбабве Crisis in Зимбабве Coalition [Xolani ZITHA]; National Constitutional Assembly или NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]; Women Зимбабве Arise или WOZA [Jenny WILLIAMS]; Зимбабве Congress of Trade Unions или ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE]

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


Bottom Banner

Поиск информации в интернете Тел.: +7(4922)533-122