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Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


Map Антарктики



Условное обозначение: ОпределениеОпределение Показатель во всех странахПоказатель во всех странах РанжированиеРанжирование
   На главную    Антарктика В начало страницы
Историческая справка:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Speculation over the existence of a "southern land" was not confirmed until the early 1820s when British и American commercial operators и British и Russian national expeditions began exploring the Antarctic Peninsula region и other areas юг of the Antarctic Circle. Not until 1840 was it established that Антарктика was indeed a continent и not just a group of islands. Several exploration "firsts" were achieved in the early 20th century. Following Мир War II, there was an upsurge in scientific research on the continent. A number of countries have set up a range of year-round и seasonal stations, camps, и refuges to support scientific research in Антарктика. Seven have made territorial claims, but not all countries recognize these claims. In order to form a legal framework for the activities of nations on the continent, an Antarctic Treaty was negotiated that neither denies nor gives recognition to existing territorial claims; signed in 1959, it entered into force in 1961.
   География    Антарктика В начало страницы
Месторасположение:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
continent mostly юг of the Antarctic Circle
Географические координаты:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
90 00 S, 0 00 E
Ссылка на карту «Всемирного справочника ЦРУ»
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Antarctic Region
Площадь:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
всего: 14 миллионов кв. км.
суша: 14 миллионов кв. км. (280,000 кв. км. ice-free, 13.72 миллионов кв. км. ice-covered) (est.)
примечание: fifth-largest continent, following Азия, Africa, Северная Америка, и South America, but larger than Австралия и the subcontinent of Europe
Площадь в сравнении с США:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
Протяженность сухопутных границ:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
0 км
примечание: see entry on Disputes - international
Протяженность водных границ:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
17,968 км
Территориальные воды:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Австралия, Чили, и Аргентина claim Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) rights или similar over 200 миль от берега extensions seaward from their continental claims, but like the claims themselves, these zones are not accepted by other countries; 21 of 28 Antarctic consultative nations have made no claims to Antarctic territory (although Россия и the US have reserved the right to do so) и do not recognize the claims of the other nations; also see the Disputes - international entry
Климат:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, и distance from the ocean; East Антарктика is colder than West Антарктика because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast и average slightly below freezing
Особенности местности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
about 98% thick continental ice sheet и 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 и 4,000 метры; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 метры; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, и parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, и floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Возвышенности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
самая низкая точка Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,555 m
самая высокая точка Vinson Massif 4,897 m
примечание: the lowest known land point in Антарктика is hidden in the Bentley Subglacial Trench; at its surface is the deepest ice yet discovered и the world's lowest elevation not under seawater
Природные ресурсы:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
железная руда, chromium, медь, золото, никель, platinum и other minerals, и каменный уголь и hydrocarbons have been found in small uncommercial quantities; none presently exploited; krill, finfish, и crab have been taken by commercial fisheries
Использование земельных ресурсов:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
пахотные земли: 0%
многолетние культуры: 0%
другое: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%) (2005)
Природные опасности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean и move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island и isolated areas of West Антарктика; other seismic activity rare и weak; large icebergs may calve from ice shelf
Загрязнения окружающей среды:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 миллионов квадратные километры; researchers in 1997 found that increased ultraviolet light passing through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an Antarctic рыба lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm один-celled Antarctic marine plants; in 2002, significant areas of ice shelves disintegrated in response to regional warming
Примечания:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), и driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
   Люди    Антарктика В начало страницы
Население:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
no indigenous inhabitants, but there are both permanent и summer-only staffed research stations
примечание: 28 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty, operate through their National Antarctic Program a number of seasonal-only (summer) и year-round research stations on the continent и its nearby islands юг of 60 degrees юг latitude (the region covered by the Antarctic Treaty); these stations' population of persons doing и supporting science или engaged in the management и protection of the Antarctic region varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000 in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel, including ship's crew и scientists doing onboard research, are present in the waters of the treaty region; peak summer (December-February) population - 4,219 total; Аргентина 667, Австралия 200, Бразилия 40, Болгария 15, Чили 237, Китай 70, Чешская республика 20, Эквадор 26, Финляндия 20, Франция 100, Франция и Италия jointly 45, Германия 90, Индия 65, Италия 90, Япония 125, South Korea 70, NZ 85, Норвегия 44, Перу 28, Польша 40, Румыния 3, Россия 429, Южно-Африканская Республика 80, Испания 28, Швеция 20, Украина 24, Великобритания 205, US 1,293, Уругвай 60 (2007-2008); winter (June-August) station population - 1,088 total; Аргентина 176, Австралия 62, Бразилия 12, Чили 96, Китай 29, Франция 26, Франция и Италия jointly 13, Германия 9, Индия 25, Италия 2, Япония 40, South Korea 18, NZ 10, Норвегия 7, Польша 12, Россия 148, Южно-Африканская Республика 10, Украина 12, Великобритания 37, US 337, Уругвай 9 (2008); research stations operated within the Antarctic Treaty area (юг of 60 degrees юг latitude) by National Antarctic Programs: year-round stations - 38 total; Аргентина 6, Австралия 3, Бразилия 1, Чили 4, Китай 2, Франция 1, Франция и Италия jointly 1, Германия 1, Индия 1, Япония 1, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Норвегия 1, Польша 1, Россия 5, Южно-Африканская Республика 1, Украина 1, Великобритания 2, US 3, Уругвай 1 (2008); a range of seasonal-only (summer) stations, camps, и refuges - Аргентина, Австралия, Болгария, Бразилия, Чили, Китай, Чешская республика, Эквадор, Финляндия, Франция, Германия, Индия, Италия, Япония, South Korea, Новая Зеландия, Норвегия, Перу, Польша, Румыния, Россия, Испания, Швеция, Украина, Великобритания, US, и Уругвай (2007-2008); in addition, during the austral summer some nations have numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary facilities, и mobile traverses in support of research (March 2008 est.)
   Правление    Антарктика В начало страницы
Название страны:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
полное название страны: none
сокращенное название страны: Антарктика
Тип правления:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 и entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management Антарктики; the 30th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Delhi, Индия in April/May 2007; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; at the end of 2007, there were 46 treaty member nations: 28 consultative и 18 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions Антарктики as national territory (some claims overlap) и 21 non-claimant nations; the US и Россия have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others; Антарктика is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals и operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the лет in parentheses indicate when a consultative member-nation acceded to the Treaty и when it was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Аргентина, Австралия, Чили, Франция, NZ, Норвегия, и the Великобритания. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Бельгия, Бразилия (1975/1983), Болгария (1978/1998) Китай (1983/1985), Эквадор (1987/1990), Финляндия (1984/1989), Германия (1979/1981), Индия (1983/1983), Италия (1981/1987), Япония, South Korea (1986/1989), Нидерланды (1967/1990), Перу (1981/1989), Польша (1961/1977), Россия, Южно-Африканская Республика, Испания (1982/1988), Швеция (1984/1988), Украина (1992/2004), Уругвай (1980/1985), и the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Австрия (1987), Беларусь (2006), Канада (1988), Колумбия (1989), Куба (1984), Чешская республика (1962/1993), Дания (1965), Эстония (2001), Греция (1987), Гватемала (1991), Венгрия (1984), Северный Korea (1987), Папуа — Новая Гвинея (1981), Румыния (1971), Словакия (1962/1993), Швейцария (1990), Турция (1996), и Венесуэлa (1999); note - Czechoslovakia acceded to the Treaty in 1962 и separated into the Чешская республика и Словакия in 1993; Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel и equipment may be used for scientific research или any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation и cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information и personnel, cooperation with the UN и other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, или establish territorial claims и no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions или disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - включая under the treaty all land и ice shelves юг of 60 degrees 00 minutes юг и reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area и may inspect all stations, installations, и equipment; advance notice of all expeditions и of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers и scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Антарктика that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned или, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, и amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings и ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna и Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 и entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through six specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna и flora, 3) waste disposal и waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, 5) area protection и management и 6) liability arising from environmental emergencies; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Аргентина
Федеральное устройство:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Антарктика is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals и operations) in accordance with their own national laws; US law, including certain criminal offenses by или against US nationals, such as murder, may apply extraterritorially; some US laws directly apply to Антарктика; for example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil и criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the taking of native mammals или birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants и animals; entry into specially protected areas; the discharge или disposal of pollutants; и the importation into the US of certain items from Антарктика; violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines и один year in prison; the National Science Foundation и Department of Justice share enforcement responsibilities; Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, as amended in 1996, requires expeditions from the US to Антарктика to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans, Room 5805, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty; for more information, contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230; телефон: (703) 292-8030, или visit their website at www.nsf.gov; more generally, access to the Antarctic Treaty area, that is to all areas between 60 и 90 degrees юг latitude, is subject to a number of relevant legal instruments и authorization procedures adopted by the states party to the Antarctic Treaty
   Экономика    Антарктика В начало страницы
Экономическйи обзор:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Fishing off the coast и tourism, both based abroad, account for Антарктика's limited economic activity. Antarctic fisheries in 2005-06 (1 July-30 June) reported landing 128,081 metric тонны (estimated рыболовство from the area covered by the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which extends slightly beyond the Antarctic Treaty area). Unregulated рыболовство, particularly of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), is a serious problem. The CCAMLR determines the recommended catch limits for marine species. A total of 36,460 tourists visited the Antarctic Treaty area in the 2006-07 Antarctic summer, up from the 30,877 visitors the previous year (estimates provided to the Antarctic Treaty by the Международные Association Антарктики Tour Operators (IAATO); this does not include passengers on overflights). Nearly all of them were passengers on commercial (nongovernmental) ships и several yachts that make trips during the summer. Most tourist trips last approximately two weeks.
   Связь    Антарктика В начало страницы
Телефония - основные линии:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
0; note - information for US bases only (2001)
Телефонные системы:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
общая оценка: local systems at some research stations
внутри страны: commercial cellular networks operating in a small number of locations
международные: код страны - none allocated; via satellite (including mobile Inmarsat и Iridium systems) to и from all research stations, ships, самолеты, и most field parties (2007)
Радиостанции:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
FM 2, коротковолновый диапазон 1 (information for US bases only); note - many research stations have a local FM radio station (2007)
Телевизионные станции:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
1 (cable system with 6 channels; American Forces Antarctic Network-McMurdo - information for US bases only) (2002)
Доменная зона:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
.aq
Число компьютеров, подключенных к интернету:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
7,744 (2007)
   Транспортное сообщение    Антарктика В начало страницы
Число аэропортов:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
27 (2008)
Число аэропортов - with unpaved runways:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
всего: 27
более 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
менее 914 m: 6 (2008)
Аэропорты для вертолетов:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
53
примечание: all year-round и seasonal stations operated by National Antarctic Programs stations have some kind of helicopter landing facilities, prepared (helipads) или unprepared (2007)
Порты и терминалы:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
there are no developed ports и harbors in Антарктика; most coastal stations have offshore anchorages, и supplies are transferred from ship to shore by small boats, barges, и helicopters; a few stations have a basic wharf facility; US coastal stations include McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), и Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03 W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under "Legal System"); all ships at port are subject to inspection in accordance with Article 7, Antarctic Treaty; offshore anchorage is sparse и intermittent; relevant legal instruments и authorization procedures adopted by the states parties to the Antarctic Treaty regulating access to the Antarctic Treaty area, to all areas between 60 и 90 degrees of latitude юг, have to be complied with (see "Legal System"); The Hydrographic Committee on Антарктика (HCA), a special hydrographic commission of Международные Hydrographic Organization (IHO), is responsible for hydrographic surveying и nautical charting matters in Antarctic Treaty area; it coordinates и facilitates provision of accurate и appropriate charts и other aids to navigation in support of safety of navigation in region; membership of HCA is open to any IHO Member State whose government has acceded to the Antarctic Treaty и which contributes resources и/или data to IHO Chart coverage of the area; members of HCA are Аргентина, Австралия, Бразилия, Чили, Китай, Эквадор, Франция, Германия, Греция, Индия, Италия, NZ, Норвегия, Россия, Южно-Африканская Республика, Испания, Великобритания, и US (2007)
   Армия    Антарктика В начало страницы
Армия - данные:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases и fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, или the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel или equipment for scientific research или for any other peaceful purposes
   Транснациональные вопросы    Антарктика В начало страницы
Международные разногласия:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
the Antarctic Treaty freezes, и most states do not recognize, the land и maritime territorial claims made by Аргентина, Австралия, Чили, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Норвегия, и the Великобритания (some overlapping) for three-fourths of the continent; the US и Россия reserve the right to make claims; no claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees запад и 150 degrees запад; the Международные Whaling Commission created a sancturary around the entire continent to deter catches by countries claiming to conduct scientific whaling; Австралия has established a similar preserve in the waters around its territorial claim

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


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