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Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


Map Южного океана



Условное обозначение: ОпределениеОпределение Показатель во всех странахПоказатель во всех странах РанжированиеРанжирование
   На главную    Южный океан В начало страницы
Историческая справка:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
A large body of recent oceanographic research has shown that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), an ocean current that flows from запад to восток around Антарктика, plays a crucial role in global ocean circulation. The region where the cold waters of the ACC meet и mingle with the warmer waters of the север defines a distinct border - the Antarctic Convergence - which fluctuates with the seasons, but which encompasses a discrete body of water и a unique ecologic region. The Convergence concentrates nutrients, which promotes marine plant life, и which in turn allows for a greater abundance of animal life. In the spring of 2000, the Международные Hydrographic Organization decided to delimit the waters within the Convergence as a fifth world ocean - the Южный океан - by combining the southern portions of the Атлантический океан, Индийский океан, и Тихий океан. The Южный океан extends from the coast Антарктики север to 60 degrees юг latitude, which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit и which approximates the extent of the Antarctic Convergence. As such, the Южный океан is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (после the Тихий океан, Атлантический океан, и Индийский океан, but larger than the Артический океан). It should be noted that inclusion of the Южный океан does not imply recognition of this feature as один of the world's primary oceans by the US Правление.
   География    Южный океан В начало страницы
Месторасположение:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
body of water between 60 degrees юг latitude и Антарктика
Географические координаты:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
60 00 S, 90 00 E (nominally), but the Южный океан has the unique distinction of being a large circumpolar body of water totally encircling the continent Антарктики; this ring of water lies between 60 degrees юг latitude и the coast Антарктики и encompasses 360 degrees of longitude
Ссылка на карту «Всемирного справочника ЦРУ»
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Antarctic Region
Площадь:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
всего: 20.327 миллионов кв. км.
примечание: включая Amundsen Sea, Bellingshausen Sea, part of the Drake Passage, Ross Sea, a small part of the Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, и other tributary water bodies
Площадь в сравнении с США:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
slightly more than twice the size of the US
Протяженность водных границ:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
17,968 км
Климат:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Celsius to -2 degrees Celsius; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent и frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice и open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 юг to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees юг latitude in the Pacific sector и 55 degrees юг latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Celsius; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter
Особенности местности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
the Южный океан is deep, 4,000 to 5,000 m over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water; the Antarctic continental shelf is generally narrow и unusually deep, its edge lying at depths of 400 to 800 m (the global mean is 133 m); the Antarctic icepack grows from an average minimum of 2.6 миллионов кв. км. in March to about 18.8 миллионов кв. км. in September, better than a sixfold increase in area; the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (21,000 км in length) moves perpetually eastward; it is the world's largest ocean current, transporting 130 миллионов кубические метры of water per second - 100 times the flow of all the world's rivers
Возвышенности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
самая низкая точка -7,235 m at the southern end of the South Sandwich Trench
самая высокая точка sea level 0 m
Природные ресурсы:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
probable large и possible giant нефть и газ fields on the continental margin; manganese nodules, possible placer deposits, sand и gravel, fresh water as icebergs; squid, whales, и seals - none exploited; krill, рыба
Природные опасности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
huge icebergs with drafts up to several hundred метры; smaller bergs и iceberg fragments; sea ice (generally 0.5 to 1 m thick) with sometimes dynamic short-term variations и with large annual и interannual variations; deep continental shelf floored by glacial deposits varying widely over short distances; high winds и large waves much of the year; ship icing, especially May-October; most of region is remote from sources of search и rescue
Загрязнения окружающей среды:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
increased solar ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic ozone hole in recent лет, reducing marine primary productivity (phytoplankton) by as much as 15% и damaging the DNA of some рыба; illegal, unreported, и unregulated рыболовство in recent лет, especially the landing of an estimated five to six times more Patagonian toothfish than the regulated fishery, which is likely to affect the sustainability of the stock; large amount of incidental mortality of seabirds resulting from long-line рыболовство for toothfish
примечание: the now-protected fur seal population is making a strong comeback после severe overexploitation in the 18th и 19th centuries
Присоединение к международным соглашениям:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
the Южный океан is subject to all international agreements regarding the world's oceans; in addition, it is subject to these agreements specific to the Antarctic region: Международные Whaling Commission (prohibits commercial whaling юг of 40 degrees юг [юг of 60 degrees юг between 50 degrees и 130 degrees запад]); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (limits sealing); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (regulates рыболовство)
примечание: many nations (including the US) prohibit mineral resource exploration и exploitation юг of the fluctuating Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence), which is in the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current и serves as the dividing line between the cold polar surface waters to the юг и the warmer waters to the север
Примечания:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between South America и Антарктика; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Южный океан; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that separates the cold polar surface waters to the юг from the warmer waters to the север; the Front и the Current extend entirely around Антарктика, reaching юг of 60 degrees юг near Новая Зеландия и near 48 degrees юг in the far South Atlantic coinciding with the path of the maximum westerly winds


   Экономика    Южный океан В начало страницы
Экономическйи обзор:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Fisheries in 2005-06 landed 128,081 metric тонны, of which 83% (106,591 тонны) was krill (Euphausia superba) и 9.7% (12,364 тонны) Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), compared to 147,506 тонны in 2004-05 of which 86% (127,035 тонны) was krill и 8% (11,821 тонны) Patagonian toothfish (estimated рыболовство from the area covered by the Convention of the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which extends slightly beyond the Южный океан area). Международные agreements were adopted in late 1999 to reduce illegal, unreported, и unregulated рыболовство, which in the 2000-01 season landed, by один estimate, 8,376 metric тонны of Patagonian и Antarctic toothfish. In the 2006-07 Antarctic summer, 35,552 tourists visited the Южный океан, compared to 29,799 in 2005-2006 (estimates provided to the Antarctic Treaty by the Международные Association Антарктики Tour Operators (IAATO), и does not include passengers on overflights и those flying directly in и out Антарктики).

   Транспортное сообщение    Южный океан В начало страницы
Порты и терминалы:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
McMurdo, Palmer, и offshore anchorages in Антарктика
примечание: few ports или harbors exist on southern side Южного океана; ice conditions limit use of most to short periods in midsummer; even then some cannot be entered without icebreaker escort; most Antarctic ports are operated by government research stations и, except in an emergency, are not open to commercial или private vessels; vessels in any port юг of 60 degrees юг are subject to inspection by observers under Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty; The Hydrographic Committee on Антарктика (HCA), a special hydrographic commission of Международные Hydrographic Organization (IHO), is responsible for hydrographic surveying и nautical charting matters in Antarctic Treaty area; it coordinates и facilitates provision of accurate и appropriate charts и other aids to navigation in support of safety of navigation in region; membership of HCA is open to any IHO Member State whose government has acceded to the Antarctic Treaty и which contributes resources и/или data to IHO Chart coverage of the area; members of HCA are Аргентина, Австралия, Бразилия, Чили, Китай, Эквадор, Франция, Германия, Греция, Индия, Италия, NZ, Норвегия, Россия, Южно-Африканская Республика, Испания, Великобритания, и US (2007)
Транспортное сообщение - примечание:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Drake Passage offers alternative to transit through the Панама Canal

   Транснациональные вопросы    Южный океан В начало страницы
Международные разногласия:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Антарктика entry), but Аргентина, Австралия, Чили, Франция, NZ, Норвегия, и Великобритания assert claims (some overlapping), including the continental shelf in the Южный океан; several states have expressed an interest in extending those continental shelf claims under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to include undersea ridges; the US и most other states do not recognize the land или maritime claims of other states и have made no claims themselves (the US и Россия have reserved the right to do so); no formal claims exist in the waters in the sector between 90 degrees запад и 150 degrees запад

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


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