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  Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов
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Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


Map Малых Тихоокеанских отдаленных островов Соединенных Штатов



Условное обозначение: ОпределениеОпределение Показатель во всех странахПоказатель во всех странах РанжированиеРанжирование
   На главную    Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов В начало страницы
Историческая справка:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
All of the following US Pacific island territories except Midway Atoll constitute the Pacific Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex и as such are managed by the Fish и Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior. Midway Atoll NWR has been included in a Refuge Complex with the Hawaiian Islands NWR и also designated as part of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These remote refuges are the most widespread collection of marine- и terrestrial-life protected areas on the planet under a single country's jurisdiction. They sustain many endemic species including corals, рыба, shellfish, marine mammals, seabirds, water birds, land birds, insects, и vegetation not found elsewhere.
Baker Island: The US took possession of the island in 1857, и its guano deposits were mined by US и British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization began on this island but was disrupted by Мир War II и thereafter abandoned. The island was established as a National Wildlife Refuge in 1974.
Howland Island: Discovered by the US early in the 19th century, the uninhabited atoll was officially claimed by the US in 1857. Both US и British companies mined for guano deposits until about 1890. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization began on this island, similar to the effort on nearby Baker Island, but was disrupted by Мир War II и thereafter abandoned. The famed American aviatrix Amelia EARHART disappeared while seeking out Howland Island as a refueling stop during her 1937 round-the-world flight; Earhart Light, a day beacon near the middle of the запад coast, was named in her memory. The island was established as a National Wildlife Refuge in 1974.
Jarvis Island: First discovered by the British in 1821, the uninhabited island was annexed by the US in 1858, but abandoned in 1879 после тонны of guano had been removed. The Великобритания annexed the island in 1889, but never carried out plans for further exploitation. The US occupied и reclaimed the island in 1935 until it was abandoned in 1942 during Мир War II. The island was established as a National Wildlife Refuge in 1974.
Johnston Atoll: Both the US и the Kingdom of Hawaii annexed Johnston Atoll in 1858, but it was the US that mined the guano deposits until the late 1880s. Johnston и Sand Islands were designated wildlife refuges in 1926. The US Navy took over the atoll in 1934, и subsequently the US Air Force assumed control in 1948. The site was used for high-altitude nuclear tests in the 1950s и 1960s, и until late in 2000 the atoll was maintained as a storage и disposal site for chemical weapons. Munitions destruction, cleanup, и closure of the facility was completed by May 2005. The Fish и Wildlife Service и the US Air Force are currently discussing future management options; in the interim, Johnston Atoll и the three-mile Naval Defensive Sea around it remain under the jurisdiction и administrative control of the US Air Force.
Kingman Reef: The US annexed the reef in 1922. Its sheltered lagoon served as a way station for flying boats on Hawaii-to-Американское Самоа flights during the late 1930s. There are no terrestrial plants on the reef, which is frequently awash, but it does support abundant и diverse marine fauna и flora. In 2001, the waters surrounding the reef out to 12 миль от берега were designated a US National Wildlife Refuge.
Midway Islands: The US took formal possession of the islands in 1867. The laying of the trans-Pacific cable, which passed through the islands, brought the first residents in 1903. Between 1935 и 1947, Midway was used as a refueling stop for trans-Pacific flights. The US naval victory over a Japanese fleet off Midway in 1942 was один of the turning points Мира War II. The islands continued to serve as a naval station until closed in 1993. Today the islands are a National Wildlife Refuge и are the site of the world's largest Laysan albatross colony.
Palmyra Atoll: The Kingdom of Hawaii claimed the atoll in 1862, и the US included it among the Hawaiian Islands when it annexed the archipelago in 1898. The Hawaii Statehood Act of 1959 did not include Palmyra Atoll, which is now partly privately owned by the Nature Conservancy with the rest owned by the Federal government и managed by the US Fish и Wildlife Service. These organizations are managing the atoll as a wildlife refuge. The lagoons и surrounding waters within the 12 миль от берега US territorial seas were transferred to the US Fish и Wildlife Service и designated as a National Wildlife Refuge in January 2001.
   География    Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов В начало страницы
Месторасположение:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Oceania
Baker Island: atoll in the Северный Тихий океан 1,830 миль от берега (3,389 км) southwest of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii и Австралия
Howland Island: island in the Северный Тихий океан 1,815 миль от берега (3,361 км) southwest of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii и Австралия
Jarvis Island: island in the South Тихий океан 1,305 миль от берега (2,417 км) юг of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii и Острова Кука
Johnston Atoll: atoll in the Северный Тихий океан 717 миль от берега (1,328 км) southwest of Honolulu, about один-third of the way from Hawaii to the Маршалловы Острова
Kingman Reef: reef in the Северный Тихий океан 930 миль от берега (1,722 км) юг of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii и Американское Самоа
Midway Islands: atoll in the Северный Тихий океан 1,260 миль от берега (2,334 км) northwest of Honolulu near the end of the Hawaiian Archipelago, about один-third of the way from Honolulu to Tokyo
Palmyra Atoll: atoll in the Северный Тихий океан 960 миль от берега (1,778 км) юг of Honolulu, about half way between Hawaii и Американское Самоа
Географические координаты:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Baker Island: 0 13 N, 176 28 W
Howland Island: 0 48 N, 176 38 W
Jarvis Island: 0 23 S, 160 01 W
Johnston Atoll: 16 45 N, 169 31 W
Kingman Reef: 6 23 N, 162 25 W
Midway Islands: 28 12 N, 177 22 W
Palmyra Atoll: 5 53 N, 162 05 W
Ссылка на карту «Всемирного справочника ЦРУ»
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Oceania
Площадь:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
total - 6,959.41 кв. км.; emergent land - 22.41 кв. км.; submerged - 6,937 кв. км.
Baker Island: total - 129.1 кв. км.; emergent land - 2.1 кв. км.; submerged - 127 кв. км.
Howland Island: total - 138.6 кв. км.; emergent land - 2.6 кв. км.; submerged - 136 кв. км.
Jarvis Island: total - 152 кв. км.; emergent land - 5 кв. км.; submerged - 147 кв. км.
Johnston Atoll: total - 276.6 кв. км.; emergent land - 2.6 кв. км.; submerged - 274 кв. км.
Kingman Reef: total - 1,958.01 кв. км.; emergent land - 0.01 кв. км.; submerged - 1,958 кв. км.
Midway Islands: total - 2,355.2 кв. км.; emergent land - 6.2 кв. км.; submerged - 2,349 кв. км.
Palmyra Atoll: total - 1,949.9 кв. км.; emergent land - 3.9 кв. км.; submerged - 1,946 кв. км.
Площадь в сравнении с США:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Baker Island: about two и a half times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Howland Island: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Jarvis Island: about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Johnston Atoll: about four и a half times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Kingman Reef: a little more than один и a half times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Midway Islands: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Palmyra Atoll: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Протяженность сухопутных границ:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
none
Протяженность водных границ:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Baker Island: 4.8 км
Howland Island: 6.4 км
Jarvis Island: 8 км
Johnston Atoll: 34 км
Kingman Reef: 3 км
Midway Islands: 15 км
Palmyra Atoll: 14.5 км
Территориальные воды:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
территориальные воды: 12 миль от берега
экономическая зона: 200 миль от берега
Климат:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Baker, Howland, и Jarvis Islands: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun
Johnston Atoll и Kingman Reef: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation
Midway Islands: subtropical with cool, moist winters (December to February) и warm, dry summers (May to October); moderated by prevailing easterly winds; most of the 1,067 mm (42 in) of annual rainfall occurs during the winter
Palmyra Atoll: equatorial, hot; located within the low pressure area of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) where the northeast и southeast trade winds meet, it is extremely wet with between 4,000-5,000 mm (160-200 in) of rainfall each year
Особенности местности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
low и nearly level sandy coral islands with narrow fringing reefs that have developed at the top of submerged volcanic mountains, which in most cases rise steeply from the ocean floor
Возвышенности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
самая низкая точка Тихий океан 0 m
самая высокая точка Baker Island, unnamed location - 8 m; Howland Island, unnamed location - 3 m; Jarvis Island, unnamed location - 7 m; Johnston Atoll, Sand Island - 10 m; Kingman Reef, unnamed location - less than 2 m; Midway Islands, unnamed location - 13 m; Palmyra Atoll, unnamed location - 3 m
Природные ресурсы:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
terrestrial и aquatic wildlife
Использование земельных ресурсов:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
пахотные земли: 0%
многолетние культуры: 0%
другое: 100% (2008)
Природные опасности:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Baker, Howland, и Jarvis Islands: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Kingman Reef: wet или awash most of the time, maximum elevation of less than 2 m makes Kingman Reef a maritime hazard
Midway Islands, Johnston, и Palmyra Atolls: нет
Загрязнения окружающей среды:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Baker, Howland, и Jarvis Islands, и Johnston Atoll: no natural fresh water resources
Kingman Reef: none
Midway Islands и Palmyra Atoll: нет
Примечания:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Baker, Howland, и Jarvis Islands: scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, и low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, и foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, и marine wildlife; closed to the public
Johnston Atoll: Johnston Island и Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; Северный Island (Akau) и East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 км in circumference; closed to the public
Kingman Reef: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public
Midway Islands: a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge и open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of wildlife observation и photography
Palmyra Atoll: the high rainfall и resulting lush vegetation make the environment of this atoll unique among the US Pacific Island territories; supports a large undisturbed stand of Pisonia beach forest
   Люди    Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов В начало страницы
Население:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
no indigenous inhabitants
примечание: public entry is by special-use permit from US Fish и Wildlife Service only и generally restricted to scientists и educators; visited annually by US Fish и Wildlife Service
Johnston Atoll: in previous лет, an average of 1,100 US military и civilian contractor personnel were present; as of May 2005 all US government personnel had left the island
Midway Islands: approximately 40 people make up the staff of US Fish и Wildlife Service и their services contractor living at the atoll
Palmyra Atoll: four to 20 Nature Conservancy, US Fish и Wildlife staff, и researchers
   Правление    Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов В начало страницы
Название страны:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
полное название страны: none
сокращенное название страны: Baker Island; Howland Island; Jarvis Island; Johnston Atoll; Kingman Reef; Midway Islands; Palmyra Atoll
Статус:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
unincorporated territories of the US; administered from Washington, DC by the Fish и Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system
note on Palmyra Atoll: incorporated Territory of the US; partly privately owned и partly federally owned; administered from Washington, DC by the Fish и Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior; the Office of Insular Affairs of the US Department of the Interior continues to administer nine excluded areas comprising certain tidal и submerged lands within the 12 миль от берега territorial sea или within the lagoon
Федеральное устройство:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
the laws of the US, where applicable, apply
Дипломатическое представительство из США:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
none (territories of the US)
Флаг:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
the flag of the US is used
   Экономика    Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов В начало страницы
Экономическйи обзор:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
no economic activity

   Транспортное сообщение    Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов В начало страницы
Число аэропортов:
Определение Показатель во всех странах Ранжирование
Baker Island: один abandoned Мир War II runway of 1,665 m covered with vegetation и unusable
Howland Island: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on the round-the-world flight of Amelia EARHART и Fred NOONAN; the aviators left Lae, New Гвинея, for Howland Island but were never seen again; the airstrip is no longer serviceable
Johnston Atoll: один closed и not maintained
Kingman Reef: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii и Американское Самоа by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 и 1938
Midway Islands: 3 - один operational (2,409 m paved); no fuel for sale except emergencies
Palmyra Atoll: 1 - 1,846 m unpaved runway; privately owned (2008)
Порты и терминалы:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
Baker, Howland, и Jarvis Islands, и Kingman Reef: none; offshore anchorage only
Johnston Atoll: Johnston Island
Midway Islands: Sand Island
Palmyra Atoll: West Lagoon
   Армия    Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов В начало страницы
Армия - данные:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
defense is the responsibility of the US
   Транснациональные вопросы    Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов В начало страницы
Международные разногласия:
Определение Показатель во всех странах
none

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.


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