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География - note
Афганистан landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)
Akrotiri British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Кипр; of the Sovereign Base Area land, 60% is privately owned и farmed, 20% is owned by the Ministry of Defense, и 20% is SBA Crown land
Албания strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea и Mediterranean Sea)
Алжир second-largest country in Africa (после Судан)
Американское Самоа Pago Pago has один of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Тихий океан, sheltered by shape from rough seas и protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Тихий океан
Андорра landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
Ангола the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Республика the Congo
Ангилья the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles
Антарктика the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), и driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable
Антигуа и Барбуда Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors и beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
Артический океан major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Тихий океан via the Bering Strait); strategic location between Северная Америка и Россия; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern и western Россия; floating research stations operated by the US и Россия; maximum snow cover in March или April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow cover lasts about 10 months
Аргентина second-largest country in South America (после Бразилия); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic и the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the север to tundra in the far юг; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere
Армения landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range
Аруба a flat, riverless island renowned for its белые sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Атлантический океан; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)
Острова Ашмор и Картье Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in August 1983
Атлантический океан major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait Гибралтара: заморской территории Великобритании, access to the Панама и Suez Canals; strategic straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), и Windward Passage; the Equator divides the Атлантический океан into the Северный Атлантический океан и South Атлантический океан
Австралия world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern и southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the запад coast, и is один of the most consistent winds in the world
Австрия landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes и valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, и low temperatures elsewhere
Азербайджан both the main area of the country и the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
Багамские Острова, The strategic location adjacent to US и Куба; extensive island chain of which 30 are inhabited
Бахрейн close to primary Middle Eastern нефть sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's нефть must transit to reach open ocean
Бангладеш most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) и later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
Барбадос easternmost Caribbean island
Беларусь landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain и for its 11,000 lakes
Бельгия crossroads of Western Europe; most West European capitals within 1,000 км of Brussels, the seat of both the Европейское сообщество и NATO
Белиз only country in Central America without a coastline on the Северный Тихий океан
Бенин sandbanks create difficult access to a coast with no natural harbors, river mouths, или islands
Бермуды consists of about 138 coral islands и islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers или freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Правление from 1941 to 1995
Бутан landlocked; strategic location between Китай и Индия; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes
Боливия landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Перу
Босния и Герцеговина within Босния и Герцеговина's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) и the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska или RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Хорватия и Монтенегро, и traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority на западе и an ethnic Serb majority in the восток
Ботсвана landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Остров Буве covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve Норвегия
Бразилия largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Чили и Эквадор
Британская территория в Индийском океане archipelago of 55 islands; Diego Garcia, largest и southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Индийский океан; island is site of joint US-Великобритания military facility
Британские Виргинские острова strong ties to nearby US Виргинские Острова (Британские) и Пуэрто-Рико
Бруней close to vital sea lanes through South Китай Sea linking Indian и Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Малазия; almost an enclave within Малазия
Болгария strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East и Азия
Буркина Фасо landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, и White Voltas
Мьянма strategic location near major Индийский океан shipping lanes
Бурунди landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
Камбоджа a land of paddies и forests dominated by the Mekong River и Tonle Sap
Камерун sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs и indications of current или prior volcanic activity; Mount Камерун , the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan запад Africa, is an active volcano
Канада second-largest country in world (после Россия); strategic location between Россия и US via север polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 км of the US border
Кабо-Верде strategic location 500 км from запад coast of Africa near major север-юг sea routes; important communications station; important sea и air refueling site
Каймановы Острoва important location between Куба и Central America
Центральноафриканская Республика landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa
Чад landlocked; Lake Чад is the most significant water body in the Sahel
Чили strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic и Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is один of world's driest regions
Китай world's fourth largest country (после Россия, Канада, и US); Mount Everest on the border with Непал is the world's tallest peak
Рождества Остров located along major sea lanes Индийского океана
Клипертон, Остров reef 12 км in circumference
Кокосовые Острова islands are thickly covered with coconut palms и other vegetation
Колумбия only South American country with coastlines on both the Северный Тихий океан и Caribbean Sea
Коморские Острова important location at northern end Мозамбика Channel
Congo, Democratic Республика the straddles equator; has narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River и is only outlet to South Атлантический океан; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin и eastern highlands
Congo, Республика the about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, или along the railroad between them
Острова Кука the northern Острова Кука are seven low-lying, sparsely populated, coral atolls; the southern Острова Кука, where most of the population lives, consist of eight elevated, fertile, volcanic isles, including the largest, Rarotonga, at 67 кв. км.
Коралловые Острова important nesting area for birds и turtles
Коста-Рика four вулканы, two of them active, rise near the capital of San Jose in the center of the country; один of the вулканы, Irazu, erupted destructively in 1963-65
Кот-д’Ивуар most of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated
Хорватия controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea и Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast Хорватии - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, и rocks
Куба largest country in Caribbean и westernmost island of the Greater Antilles
Кипр the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (после Sicily и Sardinia)
Чешская республика landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest и most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the Северный European Plain и the Danube in central Europe
Дания controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak и Kattegat) linking Baltic и Северный Seas; about один-quarter of the population lives in greater Copenhagen
Dhekelia British extraterritorial rights also extended to several small off-post sites scattered across Кипр; of the Sovereign Base Area land 60% is privately owned и farmed, 20% is owned by the Ministry of Defense, и 20% is SBA Crown land
Джибути strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes и close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Эфиопия; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa
Доминика known as "The Nature Island of the Caribbean" due to its spectacular, lush, и varied flora и fauna, which are protected by an extensive natural park system; the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, its volcanic peaks are cones of lava craters и include Boiling Lake, the second-largest, thermally active lake in the world
Доминиканская республика shares island of Hispaniola with Гаити
Эквадор Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
Египет controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa и remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Индийский океан и Mediterranean Sea; size, и juxtaposition to Израиль, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of беженцы
Сальвадор smallest Central American country и only один without a coastline on Caribbean Sea
Экваториальная Гвинея insular и continental regions widely separated
Эритрея strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes; Эритрея retained the entire coastline Эфиопии along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Эфиопия on 24 May 1993
Эстония the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, и partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Эфиопия landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence Эритреи on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Эфиопия; three major crops are believed to have originated in Эфиопия: coffee, grain sorghum, и castor bean
Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season
Фарерские Острова archipelago of 17 inhabited islands и один uninhabited island, и a few uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands
Фиджи включая 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited
Финляндия long boundary with Россия; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Франция largest West European nation
Французская Полинезия включая five archipelagoes (four volcanic, один coral); Makatea in Французская Полинезия is один of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Тихий океан - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Кирибати и Науру
Французские Южные и Антарктические Территории islands component is widely scattered across remote locations in the southern Индийский океан
Bassas da Индия (Iles Eparses): the atoll is a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano
Europa Island и Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses): wildlife sanctuary for seabirds и sea turtles
Glorioso Island (Iles Eparses): the islands и rocks are surrounded by an extensive reef system
Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): climatologically important location for forecasting циклоны in the western Индийский океан; wildlife sanctuary (seabirds, tortoises)
Габон a small population и нефть и mineral reserves have helped Габон become один of Africa's wealthier countries; in general, these circumstances have allowed the country to maintain и conserve its pristine rain forest и rich biodiversity
Гамбия almost an enclave Сенегала; smallest country on the continent of Africa
Сектор Газa strategic strip of land along Mideast-Северный African trade routes has experienced an incredibly turbulent history; the town of Gaza itself has been besieged countless times in its history
Грузия strategically located восток of the Черное море; Грузия controls much of the Caucasus Mountains и the routes through them
Германия strategic location on Северный European Plain и along the entrance to the Балтийское море
Гана Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании strategic location on Strait Гибралтара: заморской территории Великобритании that links the Северный Атлантический океан и Mediterranean Sea
Греция strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea и southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country, possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands
Гренландия dominates Северный Атлантический океан between Северная Америка и Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast; close to один-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice cap
Гренада the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Сент-Винсент и Гренадины и Гренада
Гуам largest и southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago; strategic location in western Северный Тихий океан
Гватемала no natural harbors on запад coast
Гернси: коронная земля Великобритании large, deepwater harbor at Saint Peter Port
Гвинея the Нигер и its important tributary the Milo have their sources in the Guinean highlands
Гвинея-Бисау this small country is swampy along its western coast и low-lying inland
Гвиана the third-smallest country in South America после Суринам и Уругвай; substantial portions of its western и eastern territories are claimed by Венесуэлa и Суринам respectively
Гаити shares island of Hispaniola with Доминиканская республика (western один-third is Гаити, eastern two-thirds is the Доминиканская республика)
Острова Хэрда и МакДональда Mawson Peak on Heard Island is the highest Australian mountain (at 2,745 метры, it is taller than Mt. Kosciuszko in Австралия proper), и один of only two active вулканы located in Australian territory, the other being McDonald Island; in 1992, McDonald Island broke its dormancy и began erupting; it has erupted several times since, the most recent being in 2005
Ватикан landlocked; enclave in Rome, Италия; world's smallest state; beyond the territorial boundary of Vatican City, the Lateran Treaty of 1929 grants the Holy See extraterritorial authority over 23 sites in Rome и five outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo (the Pope's summer residence)
Гондурас has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Гонконг more than 200 islands
Венгрия landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe и Balkan Peninsula as well as between Украина и Mediterranean basin; the север-юг flowing Duna (Danube) и Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
Исландия strategic location between Гренландия и Europe; westernmost European country; Reykjavik is the northernmost national capital in the world; more land covered by glaciers than in all of continental Europe
Индия dominates South азиаты subcontinent; near important Индийский океан trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Непал
Индийский океан major chokepoints include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, и the Lombok Strait
Индонeзия archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride или along major sea lanes from Индийский океан to Тихий океан
Иран strategic location on the Persian Gulf и Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for сырая нефть transport
Ирак strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway и at the head of the Persian Gulf
Ирландия strategic location on major air и sea routes between Северная Америка и northern Europe; over 40% of the population resides within 100 км of Dublin
Остров Мэн один small islet, the Calf of Man, lies to the southwest и is a bird sanctuary
Израиль there are 242 Israeli settlements и civilian land use sites in the Западный берег Иордании, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 0 in the Сектор Газa, и 29 in East Jerusalem (August 2005 est.); Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source
Италия strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea и air approaches to Western Europe
Ямайка strategic location between Cayman Trench и Ямайка Channel, the main sea lanes for the Панама Canal
Ян-Майен barren volcanic island with some moss и grass
Япония strategic location in northeast Азия
Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании largest и southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier
Иордания strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba и as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Израиль и the occupied Западный берег Иордании
Казахстан landlocked; Россия leases approximately 6,000 кв. км. of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome; in January 2004, Казахстан и Россия extended the lease to 2050
Кения the Kenyan Highlands comprise один of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Кения, Africa's second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant и varied wildlife of scientific и economic value
Кирибати 21 of the 33 islands are inhabited; Banaba (Ocean Island) in Кирибати is один of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Тихий океан - the others are Makatea in Французская Полинезия , и Науру
Северная Корея strategic location bordering Китай, South Korea, и Россия; mountainous interior is isolated и sparsely populated
Южная Корея strategic location on Korea Strait
Кювейт strategic location at head of Persian Gulf
Киргизия landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, и high-altitude lakes
Лаоc landlocked; most of the country is mountainous и thickly forested; the Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Таиланд
Латвия most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, with some hills in the восток
Ливан Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, и develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, и ethnicity
Лесото landlocked, completely surrounded by Южно-Африканская Республика; mountainous, more than 80% of the country is 1,800 m above sea level
Либерия facing the Атлантический океан, the coastline is characterized by lagoons, mangrove swamps, и river-deposited sandbars; the inland grassy plateau supports limited agriculture
Либия more than 90% of the country is desert или semidesert
Лихтенштейн along with Узбекистан, один of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
Литва fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
Люксембург landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
Macau essentially urban; an area of land reclaimed from the sea measuring 5.2 кв. км. и known as Cotai now connects the islands of Coloane и Taipa; the island area is connected to the mainland peninsula by three bridges
Македония landlocked; major транспорт corridor from Western и Центральная Европа to Aegean Sea и Southern Europe to Western Europe
Мадагаскар world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Мозамбик Channel
Малави landlocked; Lake Nyasa, some 580 км long, is the country's most prominent physical feature
Малазия strategic location along Strait of Malacca и southern South Китай Sea
Мальдивы 1,190 coral islands grouped into 26 atolls (200 inhabited islands, plus 80 islands with tourist resorts); archipelago with strategic location astride и along major sea lanes in Индийский океан
Мали landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; и the northern, arid Saharan
Мальта the country comprises an archipelago, with only the three largest islands (Мальта, Ghawdex или Gozo, и Kemmuna или Comino) being inhabited; numerous bays provide good harbors; Мальта и Тунис are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for нефть exploration
Маршалловы Острова the Маршалловы Острова Bikini и Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous Мир War II battleground, is used as a US missile test range; island city of Ebeye is the second largest settlement in the Маршалловы Острова, после the capital of Majuro, и один of the most densely populated locations in the Pacific
Мавритания most of the population concentrated in the cities of Nouakchott и Nouadhibou и along the Сенегал River in the southern part of the country
Маврикий the main island, from which the country derives its name, is of volcanic origin и is almost entirely surrounded by coral reefs; home of the dodo, a large flightless bird related to pigeons, driven to extinction by the end of the 17th century through a combination of hunting и the introduction of predatory species
Майотта: заморская территория Франции part of Comoro Archipelago (18 islands)
Мексика strategic location on southern border of US; кукуруза (maize), один of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Мексика
Микронезия four major island groups totaling 607 islands
Молдавия landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks и minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, и limestone
Монако second-smallest independent state in the world (после Holy See); almost entirely urban
Монголия landlocked; strategic location between Китай и Россия
Монтенегро strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании the island is entirely volcanic in origin и comprised of three major volcanic centers of differing ages
Мороккo strategic location along Strait Гибралтара: заморской территории Великобритании
Мозамбик the Zambezi flows through the север-central и most fertile part of the country
Намибия first country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip
Науру Науру is один of the three great phosphate rock islands in the Тихий океан - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Кирибати и Makatea in Французская Полинезия ; only 53 км юг of Equator
Остров Навасса strategic location 160 км юг of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Куба; mostly exposed rock with numerous solution holes but with enough grassland to support goat herds; dense stands of fig trees, scattered cactus
Непал landlocked; strategic location between Китай и Индия; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest и Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest и third tallest - on the borders with Китай и Индия respectively
Нидерланды located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine, Maas или Meuse, и Schelde)
Нидерландские Антильские о-ва the five islands of the Нидерландские Антильские о-ва are divided geographically into the Leeward Islands (northern) group (Saba, Sint Eustatius, и Sint Maarten) и the Windward Islands (southern) group (Bonaire и Curacao); the island of Saint Martin is the smallest landmass in the world shared by two independent states, the French territory of Saint Martin и the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten
Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции consists of the main island Новой Каледонии: заморской территории Франции (один of the largest in the Тихий океан), the archipelago of Iles Loyaute, и numerous small, sparsely populated islands и atolls
Новая Зеландия about 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
Никарагуа largest country in Central America; contains the largest freshwater body in Central America, Lago de Никарагуа
Нигер landlocked; один of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern один-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock и limited agriculture
Нигерия the Нигер enters the country in the northwest и flows southward through tropical rain forests и swamps to its delta in the Gulf Гвинеи
Ниуэ один of world's largest coral islands
Норфолк most of the 32 км coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea in один small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated
Северные Марианские острова strategic location in the Северный Тихий океан
Норвегия about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes и air routes in Северный Atlantic; один of most rugged и longest coastlines in the world
Оман strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world сырая нефть
Тихий океан the major chokepoints are the Bering Strait, Панама Canal, Luzon Strait, и the Сингапур Strait; the Equator divides the Тихий океан into the Северный Тихий океан и the South Тихий океан; dotted with low coral islands и rugged volcanic islands in the southwestern Тихий океан
Пакистан controls Khyber Pass и Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Азия и the Indian Subcontinent
Палау westernmost archipelago in the Caroline chain, consists of six island groups totaling more than 300 islands; включая Мир War II battleground of Beliliou (Peleliu) и world-famous rock islands
Панама strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting Северный и South America; controls Панама Canal that links Северный Атлантический океан via Caribbean Sea with Северный Тихий океан
Папуа — Новая Гвинея shares island of New Гвинея with Индонeзия; один of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
Парасельские острова composed of 130 small coral islands и reefs divided into the northeast Amphitrite Group и the western Crescent Group
Парагвай landlocked; lies between Аргентина, Боливия, и Бразилия; population concentrated in southern part of country
Перу shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Боливия; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Филиппины the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Азия's main water bodies: the South Китай Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, и Luzon Strait
Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании Britain's most isolated dependency; only the larger island of Pitcairn is inhabited but it has no port или natural harbor; supplies must be transported by rowed longboat from larger ships stationed offshore
Польша historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain и the lack of natural barriers on the Северный European Plain
Португалия Azores и Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait Гибралтара: заморской территории Великобритании
Пуэрто-Рико important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Панама Canal; San Juan is один of the biggest и best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers и high central mountains ensure land is well watered; юг coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in север
Катар strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major нефть deposits
Румыния controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Молдавия, и Украина
Россия largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils и climates (either too cold или too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak
Руанда landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
Святой Елены остров Святой Елены остров harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown anywhere else in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles и sooty terns; Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha is the highest island mountain in the South Atlantic и a prominent landmark on the sea lanes around southern Africa
Сент-Китс и Невис with coastlines in the shape of a baseball bat и ball, the two volcanic islands are separated by a 3-км-wide channel called The Narrows; on the southern tip of long, baseball bat-shaped Saint Kitts lies the Great Salt Pond; Nevis Peak sits in the center of its almost circular namesake island и its ball shape complements that of its sister island
Сент-Люсия the twin Pitons (Gros Piton и Petit Piton), striking cone-shaped peaks юг of Soufriere, are один of the scenic natural highlights of the Caribbean
Saint Martin the island of Saint Martin is the smallest landmass in the world shared by two independent states, the French territory of Saint Martin и the Dutch territory of Sint Maarten
Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции vegetation scanty
Сент-Винсент и Гренадины the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Сент-Винсент и Гренадины и Гренада; Сент-Винсент и Гренадины is comprised of 32 islands и cays
Самоа occupies an almost central position within Polynesia
Сан-Маринo landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe после the Holy See и Монако; dominated by the Apennines
Сан-Томе и Принсипи the smallest country in Africa; the two main islands form part of a chain of extinct вулканы и both are mountainous
Саудовская Аравия extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf и Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially сырая нефть) through Persian Gulf и Suez Canal
Сенегал westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Сенегал
Сербия controls один of the major land routes from Western Europe to Турция и the Near East
Сейшельские Острова 41 granitic и about 75 coralline islands
Сьерра-Леоне rainfall along the coast can reach 495 cm (195 inches) a year, making it один of the wettest places along coastal, western Africa
Сингапур focal point for Southeast азиаты sea routes
Словакия landlocked; most of the country is rugged и mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the север are interspersed with many scenic lakes и valleys
Словения despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
Соломоновы Острова strategic location on sea routes between the South Тихий океан, the Solomon Sea, и the Coral Sea; on 2 April 2007 an undersea землетрясения measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale occurred 345 км WNW of the capital Honiara, the resulting tsunami devastated coastal areas of Western и Choiseul provinces with dozens of deaths и thousands dislocated; the provincial capital of Gizo was especially hard hit
Сомали strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb и route through Red Sea и Suez Canal
Южно-Африканская Республика Южно-Африканская Республика completely surrounds Лесото и almost completely surrounds Свазиленд
Южная Георгия и Южные Сандвичевы острова the север coast of South Грузия has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in the 20th century, live on South Грузия
Южный океан the major chokepoint is the Drake Passage between South America и Антарктика; the Polar Front (Antarctic Convergence) is the best natural definition of the northern extent of the Южный океан; it is a distinct region at the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that separates the cold polar surface waters to the юг from the warmer waters to the север; the Front и the Current extend entirely around Антарктика, reaching юг of 60 degrees юг near Новая Зеландия и near 48 degrees юг in the far South Atlantic coinciding with the path of the maximum westerly winds
Испания strategic location along approaches to Strait Гибралтара: заморской территории Великобритании
Острова Спратли strategically located near several primary shipping lanes in the central South Китай Sea; включая numerous small islands, atolls, shoals, и coral reefs
Шри-Ланка strategic location near major Индийский океан sea lanes
Судан largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile и its tributaries
Суринам smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora и fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast
Свальбард northernmost part of the Kingdom Норвегии; consists of nine main islands; glaciers и snowfields cover 60% of the total area; Spitsbergen Island is the site of the Свальбард Global Seed Vault, a seed repository established by the Global Crop Diversity Trust и the Norwegian Правление
Свазиленд landlocked; almost completely surrounded by Южно-Африканская Республика
Швеция strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic и Северный Seas
Швейцария landlocked; crossroads of northern и southern Europe; along with southeastern Франция, northern Италия, и southwestern Австрия, has the highest elevations in the Alps
Сирия there are 42 Israeli settlements и civilian land use sites in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (August 2005 est.)
Тайвань strategic location adjacent to both the Тайвань Strait и the Luzon Strait
Таджикистан landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the север и the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Танзания Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the север, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) на западе, и Lake Nyasa in the southwest
Таиланд controls only land route from Азия to Малазия и Сингапур
Восточный Тимор Timor comes from the Malay word for "East"; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago и is the largest и easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Того the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Токелау consists of three atolls (Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu), each with a lagoon surrounded by a number of reef-bound islets of varying length и rising to over 3 m above sea level
Тонга archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)
Тринидад и Тобаго Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt
Тунис strategic location in central Mediterranean; Мальта и Тунис are discussing the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf between their countries, particularly for нефть exploration
Турция strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black и Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
Туркменистан landlocked; the western и central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau
Тёркс и Кайкос about 40 islands (eight inhabited)
Тувалу один of the smallest и most remote countries on Earth; six of the nine coral atolls - Nanumea, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, и Nukulaelae - have lagoons open to the ocean; Nanumaya и Niutao have landlocked lagoons; Niulakita does not have a lagoon
Угадна landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes и rivers
Украина strategic position at the crossroads between Europe и Азия; second-largest country in Europe
Объединенные Арабские Эмираты strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world сырая нефть
Великобритания lies near vital Северный Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 км from Франция и linked by tunnel under the английский Channel; because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 км from tidal waters
США третья страна в мире по величине (после России и Канады) и по числу населения (после Индии и Китая); Гора Маккинли - высочайшая точка Северной Америки, а Долина смерти - самая низкая точка континента
Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов Baker, Howland, и Jarvis Islands: scattered vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, и low growing shrubs; primarily a nesting, roosting, и foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, и marine wildlife; closed to the public
Johnston Atoll: Johnston Island и Sand Island are natural islands, which have been expanded by coral dredging; Северный Island (Akau) и East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral dredging; the egg-shaped reef is 34 км in circumference; closed to the public
Kingman Reef: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; closed to the public
Midway Islands: a coral atoll managed as a national wildlife refuge и open to the public for wildlife-related recreation in the form of wildlife observation и photography
Palmyra Atoll: the high rainfall и resulting lush vegetation make the environment of this atoll unique among the US Pacific Island territories; supports a large undisturbed stand of Pisonia beach forest
Уругвай second-smallest South American country (после Суринам); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle и sheep raising
Узбекистан along with Лихтенштейн , один of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Вануату a Y-shaped chain of four main islands и 80 smaller islands; several of the islands have active вулканы
Венесуэлa on major sea и air routes linking Северный и South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall
Вьетнам extending 1,650 км север to юг, the country is only 50 км across at its narrowest point
Виргинские Острова (Британские) important location along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the Панама Canal; Saint Thomas has один of the best natural deepwater harbors in the Caribbean
Остров Уэйк strategic location in the Северный Тихий океан; emergency landing location for transpacific flights
Уоллис и Футуна both island groups have fringing reefs
Западный берег Иордании landlocked; highlands are main recharge area for Израиль's coastal aquifers; there are 242 Западный берег Иордании settlements и 29 East Jerusalem settlements in addition to at least 20 occupied outposts (August 2005 est.)
Западная Сахара the waters off the coast are particularly rich рыболовство areas
Мир the world is now thought to be about 4.55 миллиардов: лет old, just about один-third of the 13.7-миллиардов:-year age estimated for the universe
Емен strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea и the Gulf of Aden, один of world's most active shipping lanes
Замбия landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Зимбабве
Зимбабве landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Замбия; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.

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