The Мир Factbook CIA На главную CIA На главную About CIA Careers Offices of CIA News & Information Library Kid’s Page Contact CIA CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

  Список стран- Правление type

Правление type
Афганистан Islamic republic
Албания emerging democracy
Алжир republic
Американское Самоа нет
Андорра parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president Франции и bishop of Seo de Urgel, Испания, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
Ангола republic; multiparty presidential regime
Ангилья нет
Антарктика Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 и entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management Антарктики; the 30th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Delhi, Индия in April/May 2007; at these periodic meetings, decisions are made by consensus (not by vote) of all consultative member nations; at the end of 2007, there were 46 treaty member nations: 28 consultative и 18 non-consultative; consultative (decision-making) members include the seven nations that claim portions Антарктики as national territory (some claims overlap) и 21 non-claimant nations; the US и Россия have reserved the right to make claims; the US does not recognize the claims of others; Антарктика is administered through meetings of the consultative member nations; decisions from these meetings are carried out by these member nations (with respect to their own nationals и operations) in accordance with their own national laws; the лет in parentheses indicate when a consultative member-nation acceded to the Treaty и when it was accepted as a consultative member, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory; claimant nations are - Аргентина, Австралия, Чили, Франция, NZ, Норвегия, и the Великобритания. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Бельгия, Бразилия (1975/1983), Болгария (1978/1998) Китай (1983/1985), Эквадор (1987/1990), Финляндия (1984/1989), Германия (1979/1981), Индия (1983/1983), Италия (1981/1987), Япония, South Korea (1986/1989), Нидерланды (1967/1990), Перу (1981/1989), Польша (1961/1977), Россия, Южно-Африканская Республика, Испания (1982/1988), Швеция (1984/1988), Украина (1992/2004), Уругвай (1980/1985), и the US; non-consultative members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Австрия (1987), Беларусь (2006), Канада (1988), Колумбия (1989), Куба (1984), Чешская республика (1962/1993), Дания (1965), Эстония (2001), Греция (1987), Гватемала (1991), Венгрия (1984), Северный Korea (1987), Папуа — Новая Гвинея (1981), Румыния (1971), Словакия (1962/1993), Швейцария (1990), Турция (1996), и Венесуэлa (1999); note - Czechoslovakia acceded to the Treaty in 1962 и separated into the Чешская республика и Словакия in 1993; Article 1 - area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel и equipment may be used for scientific research или any other peaceful purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation и cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information и personnel, cooperation with the UN и other international agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, или establish territorial claims и no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions или disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - включая under the treaty all land и ice shelves юг of 60 degrees 00 minutes юг и reserves high seas rights; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area и may inspect all stations, installations, и equipment; advance notice of all expeditions и of the introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers и scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Антарктика that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned или, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, и amending the treaty among involved nations; other agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings и ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for Fauna и Flora (1964) which were later incorporated into the Environmental Protocol; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but remains unratified; the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 и entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through six specific annexes: 1) environmental impact assessment, 2) conservation of Antarctic fauna и flora, 3) waste disposal и waste management, 4) prevention of marine pollution, 5) area protection и management и 6) liability arising from environmental emergencies; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; a permanent Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in 2004 in Buenos Aires, Аргентина
Антигуа и Барбуда constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government
Аргентина republic
Армения republic
Аруба parliamentary democracy
Австралия federal parliamentary democracy
Австрия federal republic
Азербайджан republic
Багамские Острова, The constitutional parliamentary democracy
Бахрейн constitutional monarchy
Бангладеш parliamentary democracy
Барбадос parliamentary democracy
Беларусь republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship
Бельгия federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Белиз parliamentary democracy
Бенин republic
Бермуды parliamentary; self-governing territory
Бутан in transition to constitutional monarchy; special treaty relationship with Индия
Боливия republic
Босния и Герцеговина emerging federal democratic republic
Ботсвана parliamentary republic
Бразилия federal republic
Британские Виргинские острова нет
Бруней constitutional sultanate
Болгария parliamentary democracy
Буркина Фасо parliamentary republic
Мьянма military junta
Бурунди republic
Камбоджа multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy
Камерун republic; multiparty presidential regime
Канада constitutional monarchy that is also a parliamentary democracy и a федерация
Кабо-Верде republic
Каймановы Острoва British crown colony
Центральноафриканская Республика republic
Чад republic
Чили republic
Китай Communist state
Рождества Остров нет
Кокосовые Острова нет
Колумбия republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Коморские Острова republic
Congo, Democratic Республика the republic
Congo, Республика the republic
Острова Кука self-governing parliamentary democracy
Коста-Рика democratic republic
Кот-д’Ивуар republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
примечание: the government is currently operating under a power-sharing agreement mandated by international mediators
Хорватия presidential/parliamentary democracy
Куба Communist state
Кипр republic
примечание: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified после the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that followed a Greek junta-supported coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the север; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "Президент" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence и the formation of a "Turkish Республика Northern Кипр" (TRNC), which is recognized only by Турция
Чешская республика parliamentary democracy
Дания constitutional monarchy
Джибути republic
Доминика parliamentary democracy
Доминиканская республика democratic republic
Эквадор republic
Египет republic
Сальвадор republic
Экваториальная Гвинея republic
Эритрея transitional government
примечание: following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region Эритреи on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly, composed entirely of the Люди's Front for Democracy и Justice или PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the constitution, ratified in May 1997, did not enter into effect, pending parliamentary и presidential elections; parliamentary elections were scheduled in December 2001, but were postponed indefinitely; currently the sole legal party is the Люди's Front for Democracy и Justice (PFDJ)
Эстония parliamentary republic
Эфиопия federal republic
Фолклендские ( Мальвинские) осторова нет
Фарерские Острова нет
Фиджи republic
Финляндия republic
Франция republic
Французская Полинезия нет
Габон republic; multiparty presidential regime
Гамбия republic
Грузия republic
Германия federal republic
Гана constitutional democracy
Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании нет
Греция parliamentary republic
Гренландия parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy
Гренада parliamentary democracy
Гуам нет
Гватемала constitutional democratic republic
Гернси: коронная земля Великобритании parliamentary democracy
Гвинея republic
Гвинея-Бисау republic
Гвиана republic
Гаити republic
Ватикан ecclesiastical
Гондурас democratic constitutional republic
Гонконг limited democracy
Венгрия parliamentary democracy
Исландия constitutional republic
Индия federal republic
Индонeзия republic
Иран theocratic republic
Ирак parliamentary democracy
Ирландия republic, parliamentary democracy
Остров Мэн parliamentary democracy
Израиль parliamentary democracy
Италия republic
Ямайка constitutional parliamentary democracy
Япония constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government
Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании parliamentary democracy
Иордания constitutional monarchy
Казахстан republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Кения republic
Кирибати republic
Северная Корея Communist state один-man dictatorship
Южная Корея republic
Косовo republic
Кювейт constitutional emirate
Киргизия republic
Лаоc Communist state
Латвия parliamentary democracy
Ливан republic
Лесото parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Либерия republic
Либия Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils; in practice, an authoritarian state
Лихтенштейн constitutional monarchy
Литва parliamentary democracy
Люксембург constitutional monarchy
Macau limited democracy
Македония parliamentary democracy
Мадагаскар republic
Малави multiparty democracy
Малазия constitutional monarchy
примечание: nominally headed by paramount ruler и a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house и an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers except Melaka и Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah и Sarawak in East Малазия have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of федерация, Sabah и Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls); Sabah holds 25 seats in House of Representatives; Sarawak has 31 seats
Мальдивы republic
Мали republic
Мальта republic
Маршалловы Острова constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986 и the Amended Compact entered into force in May 2004
Мавритания Democratic Republic
Маврикий parliamentary democracy
Майотта: заморская территория Франции нет
Мексика federal republic
Микронезия constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986 и the Amended Compact entered into force May 2004
Молдавия republic
Монако constitutional monarchy
Монголия mixed parliamentary/presidential
Монтенегро republic
Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании нет
Мороккo constitutional monarchy
Мозамбик republic
Намибия republic
Науру republic
Непал democratic republic
Нидерланды constitutional monarchy
Нидерландские Антильские о-ва parliamentary
Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции нет
Новая Зеландия parliamentary democracy
Никарагуа republic
Нигер republic
Нигерия federal republic
Ниуэ self-governing parliamentary democracy
Норфолк нет
Северные Марианские острова commonwealth; self-governing with locally elected governor, lieutenant governor, и legislature
Норвегия constitutional monarchy
Оман monarchy
Пакистан federal republic
Палау constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 1 October 1994
Панама constitutional democracy
Папуа — Новая Гвинея constitutional parliamentary democracy
Парагвай constitutional republic
Перу constitutional republic
Филиппины republic
Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании нет
Польша republic
Португалия republic; parliamentary democracy
Пуэрто-Рико commonwealth
Катар emirate
Румыния republic
Россия федерация
Руанда republic; presidential, multiparty system
Святой Елены остров нет
Сент-Китс и Невис parliamentary democracy
Сент-Люсия parliamentary democracy
Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции нет
Сент-Винсент и Гренадины parliamentary democracy
Самоа parliamentary democracy
Сан-Маринo republic
Сан-Томе и Принсипи republic
Саудовская Аравия monarchy
Сенегал republic
Сербия republic
Сейшельские Острова republic
Сьерра-Леоне constitutional democracy
Сингапур parliamentary republic
Словакия parliamentary democracy
Словения parliamentary republic
Соломоновы Острова parliamentary democracy
Сомали no permanent national government; transitional, parliamentary federal government
Южно-Африканская Республика republic
Испания parliamentary monarchy
Шри-Ланка republic
Судан Правление of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress Party (NCP) и Судан Люди's Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections in 2009
Суринам constitutional democracy
Свальбард нет
Свазиленд monarchy
Швеция constitutional monarchy
Швейцария formally a confederation but similar in structure to a federal republic
Сирия republic under an authoritarian military-dominated regime
Тайвань multiparty democracy
Таджикистан republic
Танзания republic
Таиланд constitutional monarchy
Восточный Тимор republic
Того republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Токелау нет
Тонга constitutional monarchy
Тринидад и Тобаго parliamentary democracy
Тунис republic
Турция republican parliamentary democracy
Туркменистан republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Тёркс и Кайкос нет
Тувалу constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy
Угадна republic
Украина republic
Объединенные Арабские Эмираты федерация with specified powers delegated to the UAE federal government и other powers reserved to member emirates
Великобритания constitutional monarchy
США Федеральная республика; сильная демократическая традиция
Уругвай constitutional republic
Узбекистан republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Вануату parliamentary republic
Венесуэлa federal republic
Вьетнам Communist state
Виргинские Острова (Британские) нет
Уоллис и Футуна нет
Западная Сахара legal status of territory и issue of sovereignty unresolved; territory contested by Мороккo и Polisario Front (Popular Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra и Rio de Oro), which in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government-in-exile of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), led by Президент Mohamed ABDELAZIZ; territory partitioned between Мороккo и Мавритания in April 1976, with Мороккo acquiring northern two-thirds; Мавритания, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Мороккo moved to occupy that sector shortly thereafter и has since asserted administrative control; the Polisario's government-in-exile was seated as an Organization of African Unity (OAU) member in 1984; guerrilla activities continued sporadically until a UN-monitored cease-fire was implemented on 6 September 1991 (Security Council Resolution 690) by the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Западная Сахара или MINURSO
Емен republic
Замбия republic
Зимбабве parliamentary democracy

Последние изменения на эту страницу были внесены 4 сентября 2008 года.

Bottom Banner

Поиск информации в интернете Тел.: +7(4922)533-122