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  Notes и Definitions

In addition to the regular information updates, The Мир Factbook 2008 features several new additions. In the География category, two new fields focus on the increasingly vital resource of вода Total renewable water resources и Freshwater withdrawal. In the Экономика category, the Factbook has added three fields: Stock of direct foreign investment – at home, Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad, и Market value of publicly traded shares. Additionally, the data for GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) has been rebased using new PPP conversion rates, benchmarked to the year 2005, which were released on 17 December 2007 by the Международные Comparison Program (ICP). The 2005 PPP data replace previous estimates, many from studies dating to 1993 или earlier. The preliminary ICP report provides estimates of internationally comparable price levels и the relative purchasing power of currencies for 146 countries. The 2005 benchmark revises downward the size of the world economy in PPP terms from the previous estimates, и changes the relative sizes of many of the world's economies. Concise descriptions of the major religions mentioned in the Factbook have been added to the Notes и Definitions. Франция 's redesignation of some of its overseas possessions caused the five former Индийский океан island possessions making up Iles Eparses to be incorporated into the Французские Южные и Антарктические Территории , while two new Caribbean entities, St. Barthelemy и St. Martin , were created. Revision of some individual country maps, first introduced in the 2001 edition, is continued in this edition. The revised maps include elevation extremes и a partial geographic grid. Several regional maps have also been updated to reflect boundary changes и place name spelling changes.

Аббревиатуры This information is included in Приложения A: Аббревиатуры, which включая all abbreviations и acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions.
Acronyms An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term или phrase. In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from Северный Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast азиаты Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter (Comsat from Связь Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement). Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between initially identical terms (ICC for Международные Chamber of Commerce и ICCt for Международные Criminal Court).
Administrative divisions This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, и first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted.
Age structure This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex и age group (0-14 лет, 15-64 лет, 65 лет и over). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 и over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can свинец to unrest.
Agriculture - products This entry is an ordered listing of major crops и products starting with the most important.
Число аэропортов This entry gives the total number of airports или airfields recognizable from the air. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete или asphalt surfaces) или unpaved (grass, earth, sand, или gravel surfaces) but may include closed или abandoned installations. Число аэропортов или airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no facilities, etc.) are not included. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, или air traffic control.
Число аэропортов - with paved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways (concrete или asphalt surfaces) by length. For airports with more than один runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) более 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, и (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, или air traffic control.
Число аэропортов - with unpaved runways This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, или gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with more than один runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) более 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, и (5) under 914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, или air traffic control.
Дополнения This section включая Factbook-related material by topic.
Area This entry включая three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land и water areas delimited by international boundaries и/или coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries и/или coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of the surfaces of all inland water bodies, such as lakes, reservoirs, или rivers, as delimited by international boundaries и/или coastlines.
Area - comparative This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US или один of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 кв. км., 69 sq mi) или The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 кв. км., 0.23 sq mi, 146 акры).
Background This entry usually highlights major historic events и current issues и may include a statement about один или two key future trends.
Birth rate This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility и the age structure of the population.
Budget This entry включая revenues, expenditures, и capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Capital This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) и the time observed in Washington, DC, и, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
Climate This entry включая a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.
Coastline This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) и the sea.
Связь This category deals with the means of exchanging information и включая the telephone, radio, television, и Интернет host entries.
Связь - note This entry включая miscellaneous communications information of significance not included elsewhere.
Constitution This entry включая the dates of adoption, revisions, и major amendments.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) UTC is the international atomic time scale that serves as the basis of timekeeping for most of the world. The hours, minutes, и seconds expressed by UTC represent the time of day at the Prime Meridian (0є longitude) located near Greenwich, England as reckoned from midnight. UTC is calculated by the Bureau Международные des Poids et Measures (BIPM) in Sevres, Франция. The BIPM averages data collected from more than 200 atomic time и frequency standards located at about 50 laboratories worldwide. UTC is the basis for all civil time with the Earth divided into time zones expressed as positive или negative differences from UTC. UTC is also referred to as "Zulu time." See the Standard Time Zones of the Мир map included with the Сылки на карты.
Страна data codes see Data codes.
Страна map Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information available at the time of preparation. Names и/или boundaries may have changed subsequently.
Страна name This entry включая all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Италия is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Италия), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom Италии), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
Crude нефть See entry for нефть.
Currency (code) This entry identifies the national medium of exchange и, in parenthesis, gives the Международные Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.
Current account balance This entry records a country's net trade in goods и services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, и dividends, и net transfer payments (such as pension funds и worker remittances) to и from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Data codes This information is presented in Приложения D: Список кодов стран и Приложения E: Перекресный список кодов водных объектов.
Date of information In general, information available as of 1 January 2007 was used in the preparation of this edition.
Daylight Saving Time (DST) This entry is included for those entities that have adopted a policy of adjusting the official local time forward, usually один hour, from Standard Time during summer months. Such policies are most common in mid-latitude regions.
Death rate This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, и most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.
Debt - external This entry gives the total public и private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in foreign currency, goods, или services. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Dependency status This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular nonindependent entity и an independent state.
Dependent areas This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.
Diplomatic representation The US Правление has diplomatic relations with 189 independent states, including 187 of the 192 UN members (excluded UN members are Бутан, Куба, Иран, Северный Korea, и the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 2 independent states that are not in the UN, the Holy See и Косовo, as well as with the EU.
Diplomatic representation from the US This entry включая the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, и consulate locations.
Diplomatic representation in the US This entry включая the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, и consulate locations.
Disputes - international This entry включая a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of один sort или another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial и maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders или frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, или irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance или recognition by the US Правление.
Distribution of family income - Gini index This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve и the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line и the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line и the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line и the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis и the right vertical axis и the index would be 100.
Economic aid - donor This entry refers to net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation и Development (OECD) nations to developing countries и multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development и welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), и contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) или private flows. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Economic aid - recipient This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition и statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure включая assistance from the Мир Bank, the IMF, и other international organizations и from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including outright grants и loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows и repayments. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Экономика This category включая the entries dealing with the size, development, и management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, и capital.
Экономика - overview This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, и the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events и policy changes in the most recent 12 months и may include a statement about один или two key future macroeconomic trends.
Education expenditures This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent от ВВП
Electricity - consumption This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports и minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated и/или imported и the amount consumed и/или exported is accounted for as loss in transmission и distribution.
Electricity - exports This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
Electricity - imports This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
Electricity - production This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated и/или imported и the amount consumed и/или exported is accounted for as loss in transmission и distribution.
Elevation extremes This entry включая both the highest point и the lowest point.
Entities Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, и governments included in this publication are not independent, и others are not officially recognized by the US Правление. "Independent state" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependencies" и "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with an independent state. "Страна" names used in the table of contents или for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names и may include independent states, dependencies, и areas of special sovereignty, или other geographic entities. There are a total of 266 separate geographic entities in The Мир Factbook that may be categorized as follows:
194 Афганистан, Албания, Алжир, Андорра, Ангола, Антигуа и Барбуда, Аргентина, Армения, Австралия, Австрия, Азербайджан, The Багамские Острова, Бахрейн, Бангладеш, Барбадос, Беларусь, Бельгия, Белиз, Бенин, Бутан, Боливия, Босния и Герцеговина, Ботсвана, Бразилия, Бруней, Болгария, Буркина Фасо, Мьянма, Бурунди, Камбоджа, Камерун , Канада, Кабо-Верде, Центральноафриканская Республика , Чад , Чили, Китай, Колумбия, Коморские Острова, Democratic Республика the Congo, Республика the Congo, Коста-Рика, Кот-д’Ивуар, Хорватия, Куба, Кипр, Чешская республика, Дания, Джибути, Доминика, Доминиканская республика, Эквадор, Египет, Сальвадор, Экваториальная Гвинея, Эритрея, Эстония, Эфиопия, Фиджи, Финляндия, Франция, Габон, The Gambia, Грузия, Германия, Гана, Греция, Гренада, Гватемала , Гвинея, Гвинея-Бисау, Гвиана, Гаити, Holy See, Гондурас, Венгрия, Исландия, Индия, Индонeзия, Иран, Ирак, Ирландия, Израиль, Италия, Ямайка, Япония, Иордания, Казахстан, Кения, Кирибати, Северный Южная Корея Korea, Косовo, Кювейт, Киргизия, Лаоc, Латвия, Ливан, Лесото, Либерия, Либия, Лихтенштейн , Литва, Люксембург, Македония, Мадагаскар, Малави, Малазия, Мальдивы, Мали, Мальта, Маршалловы Острова, Мавритания, Маврикий, Мексика, Federated States of Micronesia, Молдавия, Монако, Монголия, Монтенегро, Мороккo, Мозамбик, Намибия, Науру, Непал, Нидерланды, NZ, Никарагуа, Нигер, Нигерия, Норвегия, Оман, Пакистан, Палау, Панама, Папуа — Новая Гвинея, Парагвай, Перу, Филиппины, Польша, Португалия, Катар, Румыния, Россия, Руанда, Сент-Китс и Невис , Сент-Люсия, Сент-Винсент и Гренадины, Самоа, Сан-Маринo, Сан-Томе и Принсипи , Саудовская Аравия, Сенегал , Сербия, Сейшельские Острова , Сьерра-Леоне , Сингапур, Словакия, Словения, Соломоновы Острова, Сомали, Южно-Африканская Республика, Испания, Шри-Ланка, Судан, Суринам, Свазиленд , Швеция, Швейцария, Сирия, Таджикистан, Танзания, Таиланд, Восточный Тимор , Того, Тонга, Тринидад и Тобаго, Тунис, Турция, Туркменистан, Тувалу, Угадна, Украина, UAE, Великобритания, US, Уругвай, Узбекистан, Вануату , Венесуэлa, Вьетнам, Емен, Замбия, Зимбабве
2 Тайвань, Европейское сообщество
6 Австралия - Острова Ашмор и Картье, Рождества Остров, Кокосовые Острова, Коралловые Острова, Острова Хэрда и МакДональда, Норфолк
2 Китай - Гонконг , Macau
2 Дания - Фарерские Острова, Гренландия
9 Франция - Клипертон, Остров, Французская Полинезия , Французские Южные и Антарктические Территории , Майотта: заморская территория Франции, Новая Каледония: заморская территория Франции, Сен-Бартельми, Saint Martin, Сен-Пьер и Микелон: заморская территория Франции, Уоллис и Футуна
2 Нидерланды - Аруба, Нидерландские Антильские о-ва
3 Новая Зеландия - Острова Кука, Ниуэ, Токелау
3 Норвегия - Остров Буве, Ян-Майен, Свальбард
17 Великобритания - Akrotiri, Ангилья, Бермуды, Британская территория в Индийском океане, Британские Виргинские острова, Каймановы Острoва, Dhekelia, Falkland Islands, Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании, Гернси: коронная земля Великобритании, Джерси: коронная земля Великобритании, Остров Мэн, Монтсеррат: заморская территория Великобритании, Питкэрн: заморская территория Великобритании, Святой Елены остров, Южная Георгия и Южные Сандвичевы острова, Тёркс и Кайкос
14 US - Американское Самоа, Baker Island*, Гуам, Howland Island*, Jarvis Island*, Johnston Atoll*, Kingman Reef*, Midway Islands*, Остров Навасса, Северные Марианские острова, Palmyra Atoll*, Пуэрто-Рико, Виргинские Острова (Британские) , Остров Уэйк (* consolidated in Малые Тихоокеанские отдаленные острова Соединенных Штатов entry)
6 Антарктика, Сектор Газa, Парасельские острова, Острова Спратли, Западный берег Иордании, Западная Сахара
5 oceans - Артический океан, Атлантический океан, Индийский океан, Тихий океан, Южный океан
1 Мир

266 total
Environment - current issues This entry lists the most pressing и important environmental problems. The following terms и abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
Acidification - the lowering of soil и water pH due to acid precipitation и deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows и may kill freshwater рыба и plants dependent on more neutral или alkaline conditions (see acid rain).
Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of сера dioxide или nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging и potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, и values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England.
Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a газ, smoke, или fog.
Afforestation - converting a bare или agricultural space by planting trees и plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut или destroyed by fire.
Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials и considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form.
Biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form и function, at the genetic, organism, community, и ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural или man-induced disruption.
Bio-indicators - a plant или animal species whose presence, abundance, и health reveal the general condition of its habitat.
Biomass - the total weight или volume of living matter in a given area или volume.
Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, и geological deposits.
Catchments - assemblages used to capture и retain rainwater и runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Гибралтар: заморская территория Великобритании.
DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.
Defoliants - химическая промышленность which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, и may have detrimental impacts on human и ecosystem health.
Deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable лесоводство practices, agricultural и range land clearing, и the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth.
Desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid или semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, или climate change.
Dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g., shellfish) или harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction of reef и ocean-floor ecosystems.
Drift-net рыболовство - done with a net, мили in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat и left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting и waste of large populations of non-commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean."
Ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms и their specific environments.
Effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, или industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it.
Endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting или habitat destruction.
Freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, и underground aquifers.
Greenhouse газ - a газ that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, и ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere.
Groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells и natural springs.
Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by Лесото и Южно-Африканская Республика to redirect Лесото's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in Южно-Африканская Республика; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly и controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, и squanders economic resources.
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the 145,000 Inuits России, Alaska, Канада, и Гренландия in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three лет to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, и climate change.
Metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science, technology, и processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated и toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water и air when not properly disposed.
Noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings.
Overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.
Ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone газ (O3) that resides approximately 25 мили above the Earth's surface и absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms.
Poaching - the illegal killing of animals или рыба, a great concern with respect to endangered или threatened species.
Pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made waste.
Potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.
Salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes соль (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.
Siltation - occurs when water channels и reservoirs become clotted with silt и mud, a side effect of deforestation и soil erosion.
Slash-и-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down и burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected и the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low и time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment .
Soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides или fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, или erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce продукты сельского хозяйства.
Soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water или wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, и desertification.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic энергия emitted by the sun и naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms и has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans.
Water-born diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, и are transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply.
Environment - international agreements This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to и signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
Environmental agreements This information is presented in Приложения C: Международные соглашения по окружающей среде, which включая the name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into force, objective, и parties by category.
Этнические группы This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest и normally включая the percent of total population.
Exchange rates This entry provides the official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date или over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per доллар США и as determined by international market forces или official fiat.
Executive branch This entry включая several subfields. Chief of state включая the name и title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official и ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government включая the name и title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the Великобритания, the monarch is the chief of state, и the prime minister is the глава правительства. In the US, the president is both the chief of state и the глава правительства. Cabinet включая the official name for this body of high-ranking advisers и the method for selection of members. Elections включая the nature of election process или accession to power, date of the last election, и date of the next election. Election results включая the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election.
Exports This entry provides the total доллар США amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Exports - commodities This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes включая the percent of total dollar value.
Exports - partners This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes включая the percent of total dollar value.
Fiscal year This entry identifies the beginning и ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the календарный год but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the календарный год (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
Флаг description This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags или the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed и other areas do not have flags.
Флаг graphic Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags или the best information available at the time of preparation. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed и other areas do not have flags.
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) This entry provides the annual quantity of water in кубические километры removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed и some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial и/или limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use включая water used for irrigation и livestock watering, и does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal и per capita water withdrawal.
GDP (official exchange rate) This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) или value of all final goods и services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at official exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute и gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-а-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed и/или subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- или over-valued currency - и are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods и services (the ones the country trades) и may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from один year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
GDP (purchasing power parity) This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) или value of all final goods и services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods и services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the США. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare и when comparing living conditions или use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a доллар США value has to be assigned to all goods и services in the country regardless of whether these goods и services have a direct equivalent in the США (for example, the value of an ox-cart или non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small и sometimes different set of goods и services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the Мир Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- и PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
GDP - composition by sector This entry gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, и services to total GDP. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.
GDP - per capita (PPP) This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
GDP - real growth rate This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation и expressed as a percent.
GDP methodology In the Экономика category, GDP dollar estimates for countries are reported both on an official exchange rate (OER) и a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Both measures contain information that is useful to the reader. The PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods и services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method probably provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic strength и well-being between countries. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international и domestic financial forces that may not capture the value of domestic output. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up или down by 10% или more because of market forces или official fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak currencies, the exchange rate estimate от ВВП in dollars is typically один-fourth to один-half the PPP estimate. Most of the GDP estimates for developing countries are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN Международные Comparison Program (UNICP) и by Professors Robert Summers и Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania и their colleagues. GDP derived using the OER method should be used for the purpose of calculating the share of items such as exports, imports, military expenditures, external debt, или the current account balance, because the dollar values presented in the Factbook for these items have been converted at official exchange rates, not at PPP. One should use the OER GDP figure to calculate the proportion of, say, Chinese defense expenditures in GDP, because that share will be the same as один calculated in local currency units. Comparison of OER GDP with PPP GDP may also indicate whether a currency is over- или under-valued. If OER GDP is smaller than PPP GDP, the official exchange rate may be undervalued, и vice versa. However, there is no strong historical evidence that market exchange rates move in the direction implied by the PPP rate, at least not in the short- или medium-term. Note: the numbers for GDP и other economic data should not be chained together from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the доллар США measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new или different sources of information, и changes in national statistical methods и practices.
GNP Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods и services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national well-being.
GWP This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) или aggregate value of all final goods и services produced worldwide in a given year.
Geographic coordinates This entry включая rounded latitude и longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity и is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server (GNS), maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.
Geographic names This information is presented in Приложения F: Перекресный список Географических Названий. It включая a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, и regional names referenced to один или more related Factbook entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names и additional information are included in parentheses.
География This category включая the entries dealing with the natural environment и the effects of human activity.
География - note This entry включая miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
Gini index See entry for Distribution of family income - Gini index
Правление This category включая the entries dealing with the system for the adoption и administration of public policy.
Правление - note This entry включая miscellaneous government information of significance not included elsewhere.
Правление type This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. (Note that for some countries more than один definition applies.):
Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.e., without any laws, constitution, или legally organized oposition.
Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness или political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.
Authoritarian - a form of government in which state authority is imposed onto many aspects of citizens' lives.
Commonwealth - a nation, state, или other political entity founded on law и united by a compact of the people for the common good.
Communist - a system of government in which the state plans и controls the economy и a single - often authoritarian - party holds power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property или capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people (i.e., a classless society).
Confederacy (Confederation) - a union by compact или treaty between states, provinces, или territories, that creates a central government with limited powers; the constituent entities retain supreme authority over all matters except those delegated to the central government.
Constitutional - a government by или operating under an authoritative document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws и principles that determines the nature, functions, и limits of that government.
Constitutional democracy - a form of government in which the sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution.
Constitutional monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, и responsibilities are spelled out in written law или by custom.
Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation и delegated authority periodically renewed.
Democratic republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers и representatives responsible to them.
Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler или small clique wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution или laws).
Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church.
Emirate - similar to a monarchy или sultanate, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of an emir (the ruler of a мусульмане state); the emir may be an absolute overlord или a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
Federal (Federation) - a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - between a central authority и a number of constituent regions (states, colonies, или provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units.
Federal republic - a state in which the powers of the central government are restricted и in which the component parts (states, colonies, или provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives.
Islamic republic - a particular form of government adopted by some мусульмане states; although such a state is, in theory, a theocracy, it remains a republic, but its laws are required to be compatible with the laws of Islam.
Maoism - the theory и practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in Китай by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people.
Marxism - the political, economic, и social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society - Communism.
Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism и shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries.
Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state или territory, usually for life и by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler или a sovereign - such as a king, queen, или prince - with constitutionally limited authority.
Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth или power.
Parliamentary democracy - a political system in which the legislature (parliament) selects the government - a prime minister, premier, или chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to party strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the parliament.
Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) - a government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet и its leader - a prime minister, premier, или chancellor) are nominated to their positions by a legislature или parliament, и are directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament (legislature) by means of a no confidence vote или the leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer function.
Parliamentary monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is not actively involved in policy formation или implementation (i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity); true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet и its head - a prime minister, premier, или chancellor - who are drawn from a legislature (parliament).
Presidential - a system of government where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature (to which it is generally not accountable).
Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation.
Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, и distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just и equitable distribution of property и labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite.
Sultanate - similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a мусульмане state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler или a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
Theocracy - a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious authority.
Totalitarian - a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political и economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, и beliefs of its population.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) The mean solar time at the Greenwich Meridian, Greenwich, England, with the hours и days, since 1925, reckoned from midnight. GMT is now a historical term having been replaced by UTC on 1 January 1972. See Coordinated Universal Time.
Gross domestic product see GDP
Gross national product see GNP
Gross world product see GWP
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at yearend.
HIV/AIDS - deaths This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults и children who died of AIDS during a given календарный год.
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults и children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether или not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.
Heliports This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, или landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively и have support facilities including один или more of the following facilities: lighting, fuel, passenger handling, или maintenance. It включая former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations и natural clearings that could support helicopter landings и takeoffs.
Household income или consumption by percentage share Data on household income или consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards и procedures in collecting и adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
Hydrographic data codes see Data codes
Транзит наркотиков This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, и cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced и prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced и sold outside of medical channels.
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, и включая marijuana (pot, Acapulco золото, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), и hashish нефть (hash нефть).
Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds и is used in making chocolate, cocoa, и cocoa butter.
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension и anxiety и include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), и others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, или behavioral change in an individual.
Drug abuse is the use of any licit или illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, или behavioral impairment in an individual.
Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, и emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline и peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), и others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis или hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis или hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Азия и Africa.
Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, и refer to opium, opium derivatives, и synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), и thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), и hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine или Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), и others (Darvon, Lomotil).
Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy.
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural и semisynthetic narcotics.
Poppy straw is the entire cut и dried opium poppy-plant material, other than the seeds. Opium is extracted from poppy straw in commercial operations that produce the drug for medical use.
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds или leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed или drunk as tea.
Quaaludes is the Северный American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase энергия и activity, и include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor, Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), и others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).
Imports This entry provides the total доллар США amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, и freight) или f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Imports - commodities This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes включая the percent of total dollar value.
Imports - partners This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes включая the percent of total dollar value.
Independence For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved и from which nation, empire, или trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date или the date of unification, федерация, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, или state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Also see the Terminology note.
Industrial production growth rate This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (включая обрабатывающая промышленность, добыча полезных ископаемых, и construction).
Industries This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
Infant mortality rate This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under один year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, и deaths by sex, мужчин и female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.
Inflation rate (consumer prices) This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
Международные disputes see Disputes - international
Международные organization participation This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member или participates in some other way.
Международные organizations This information is presented in Приложения B: Международные организации и группы which включая the name, abbreviation, date established, aim, и members by category.
Доменная зона This entry включая the two-letter codes maintained by the Международные Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166 Alpha-2 list и used by the Интернет Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).
Интернет hosts This entry lists the number of Интернет hosts available within a country. An Интернет host is a computer connected directly to the Интернет; normally an Интернет Service Provider's (ISP) computer is a host. Интернет users may use either a hard-wired terminal, at an institution with a mainframe computer connected directly to the Интернет, или may connect remotely by way of a modem via telephone line, cable, или satellite to the Интернет Service Provider's host computer. The number of hosts is один indicator of the extent of Интернет connectivity.
Интернет users This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the Интернет. Statistics vary from country to country и may include users who access the Интернет at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.
На главную This category включая один entry, Background.
Investment (gross fixed) This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, и inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it включая invesment that merely replaces worn-out или scrapped capital.
Площадь орошаемых земель This entry gives the number of квадратные километры of land area that is artificially supplied with water.
Judicial branch This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) и a brief description of the selection process for members.
Labor force This entry contains the total labor force figure.
Labor force - by occupation This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by occupation. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.
Land boundaries This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries и the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.
Land use This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: пахотные земли - land cultivated for crops like пшеница, maize, и рис that are replanted после each harvest; permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, и rubber that are not replanted после each harvest; включая land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, и vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood или леса; other - any land not arable или under permanent crops; включая permanent meadows и pastures, forests и woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.
Языки This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the largest и sometimes включая the percent of total population speaking that language.
Legal system This entry contains a brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, и acceptance of Международные Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
Legislative branch This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, и term of office. Elections включая the nature of election process или accession to power, date of the last election, и date of the next election. Election results включая the percent of vote и/или number of seats held by each party in the last election.
Life expectancy at birth This entry contains the average number of лет to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry включая total population as well as the мужчин и female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country и summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital и is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.
Словесная грамотность This entry включая a definition of literacy и Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, и females. There are no universal definitions и standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read и write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read и write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available и valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, и education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.
Location This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, и adjacent bodies of water.
Major infectious diseases This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the США. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three лет. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, и the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.
The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, и other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine physician is needed to evaluate individual risk и recommend appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.
Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics и listed in typical descending order of risk. Note: The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions.
food или waterborne diseases acquired through eating или drinking on the local economy:
Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food или water contaminated with fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit fever, jaundice, и diarrhea; 15% of victims will experience prolonged symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.
Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, и dark colored urine.
Typhoid fever - bacterial disease spread through contact with food или water contaminated by fecal matter или sewage; victims exhibit sustained high fevers; left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.
vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:
Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium; transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito; parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in cycles of fever, chills, и sweats accompanied by anemia; death due to damage to vital organs и interruption of blood supply to the brain; endemic in 100, mostly tropical, countries with 90% of cases и the majority of 1.5-2.5 миллионов estimated annual deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa.
Dengue fever - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of fever и severe headache; occasionally produces shock и hemorrhage leading to death in 5% of cases.
Yellow fever - mosquito-borne viral disease; severity ranges from influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis и hemorrhagic fever; occurs only in tropical South America и sub-Saharan Africa, where most cases are reported; fatality rate is less than 20%.
Japanese Encephalitis - mosquito-borne (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) viral disease associated with rural areas in Азия; acute encephalitis can progress to paralysis, coma, и death; fatality rates 30%.
African Trypanosomiasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma; transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies; infection leads to malaise и irregular fevers и, in advanced cases when the parasites invade the central nervous system, coma и death; endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa; cattle и wild animals act as reservoir hosts for the parasites.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania; transmitted to humans via the bite of sandflies; results in skin lesions that may become chronic; endemic in 88 countries; 90% of cases occur in Иран, Афганистан, Сирия, Саудовская Аравия, Бразилия, и Перу; wild и domesticated animals as well as humans can act as reservoirs of infection.
Plague - bacterial disease transmitted by fleas normally associated with rats; person-to-person airborne transmission also possible; recent plague epidemics occurred in areas of Азия, Africa, и South America associated with rural areas или small towns и villages; manifests as fever, headache, и painfully swollen lymph nodes; disease progresses rapidly и without antibiotic treatment leads to pneumonic form with a death rate in excess of 50%.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - tick-borne viral disease; infection may also result from exposure to infected animal blood или tissue; geographic distribution включая Africa, Азия, the Middle East, и Eastern Europe; sudden onset of fever, headache, и muscle aches followed by hemorrhaging in the bowels, urine, nose, и gums; mortality rate is approximately 30%.
Rift Valley fever - viral disease affecting domesticated animals и humans; transmission is by mosquito и other biting insects; infection may also occur through handling of infected meat или contact with blood; geographic distribution включая eastern и southern Africa where cattle и sheep are raised; symptoms are generally mild with fever и some liver abnormalities, but the disease may progress to hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, или ocular disease; fatality rates are low at about 1% of cases.
Chikungunya - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; characterized by sudden onset of fever, rash, и severe joint pain usually lasting 3-7 days, some cases result in persistent arthritis.
water contact diseases acquired through swimming или wading in freshwater lakes, streams, и rivers:
Leptospirosis - bacterial disease that affects animals и humans; infection occurs through contact with water, food, или soil contaminated by animal urine; symptoms include high fever, severe headache, vomiting, jaundice, и diarrhea; untreated, the disease can result in kidney damage, liver failure, meningitis, или respiratory distress; fatality rates are low but left untreated recovery can take months.
Schistosomiasis - caused by parasitic trematode flatworm Schistosoma; fresh water snails act as intermediate host и release larval form of parasite that penetrates the skin of people exposed to contaminated water; worms mature и reproduce in the blood vessels, liver, kidneys, и intestines releasing eggs, which become trapped in tissues triggering an immune response; may manifest as either urinary или intestinal disease resulting in decreased work или learning capacity; mortality, while generally low, may occur in advanced cases usually due to bladder cancer; endemic in 74 developing countries with 80% of infected people living in sub-Saharan Africa; humans act as the reservoir for this parasite.
aerosolized dust или soil contact disease acquired through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with rodent urine:
Lassa fever - viral disease carried by rats of the genus Mastomys; endemic in portions of West Africa; infection occurs through direct contact with или consumption of food contaminated by rodent urine или fecal matter containing virus particles; fatality rate can reach 50% in epidemic outbreaks.
respiratory disease acquired through close contact with an infectious person:
Meningococcal meningitis - bacterial disease causing an inflammation of the lining of the brain и spinal cord; один of the most important bacterial pathogens is Neisseria meningitidis because of its potential to cause epidemics; symptoms include stiff neck, high fever, headaches, и vomiting; bacteria are transmitted from person to person by respiratory droplets и facilitated by close и prolonged contact resulting from crowded living conditions, often with a seasonal distribution; death occurs in 5-15% of cases, typically within 24-48 hours of onset of symptoms; highest burden of meningococcal disease occurs in the hyperendemic region of sub-Saharan Africa known as the "Meningitis Belt" which stretches from Сенегал восток to Эфиопия.
animal contact disease acquired through direct contact with local animals:
Rabies - viral disease of mammals usually transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, most commonly dogs; virus affects the central nervous system causing brain alteration и death; symptoms initially are non-specific fever и headache progressing to neurological symptoms; death occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.
Manpower available for military service This entry gives the number of males и females falling in the military age range for a country (defined as being ages 16-49) и assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
Manpower fit for military service This entry gives the number of males и females falling in the military age range for a country (defined as being ages 16-49) и who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country и provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually This entry gives the number of males и females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year и is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
Map references This entry включая the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.
Maritime claims This entry включая the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full и definitive descriptions:
territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory и internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed и subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical мили; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the mean low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.
contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, или sanitary laws и regulations within its territory или territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws и regulations committed within its territory или territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical мили from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g. the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea).
exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond и adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring и exploiting, conserving и managing the natural resources, whether living или non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed и of the seabed и its subsoil, и with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation и exploration of the zone, such as the production of энергия from the water, currents, и winds; jurisdiction with regard to the establishment и use of artificial islands, installations, и structures; marine scientific research; the protection и preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical мили from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.
continental shelf - the UNCLOS (Article 76) defines the continental shelf of a coastal state as comprising the seabed и subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, или to a distance of 200 nautical мили from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the landmass of the coastal state, и consists of the seabed и subsoil of the shelf, the slope и the rise; wherever the continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical мили from the baseline, coastal states may extend their claim to a distance not to exceed 350 nautical мили from the baseline или 100 nautical мили from the 2500 meter isobath; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges или the subsoil thereof.
exclusive рыболовство zone - while this term is not used in the UNCLOS, some states (e.g., the Великобритания) have chosen not to claim an EEZ, but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their coast; in such cases, the term exclusive рыболовство zone is often used; the breadth of this zone is normally the same as the EEZ или 200 nautical мили.
Market value of publicly traded shares This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.
Median age This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age и half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Угадна и Сектор Газa to 40 или more in several European countries и Япония. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure и, by implication, a low versus a higher median age.
Число судов торгового флота, общий грузооборот, распределение по типам судов Число судов торгового флота, общий грузооборот, распределение по типам судов may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; или all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, рыболовство vessels, offshore нефть rigs, etc. This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by type, foreign-owned, и registered in other countries.
Total включая the number of ships (1,000 GRT или over), total DWT for those ships, и total GRT for those ships. DWT или dead weight tonnage is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc., that a ship can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT или gross register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered volume of a ship available for cargo и passengers и converting it to тонны on the basis of 100 кубические feet per ton; there is no stable relationship between GRT и DWT.
Ships by type включая a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, chemical tankers, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/нефть carriers, container ships, liquefied газ tankers, livestock carriers, multifunctional large-load carriers, нефть tankers, passenger ships, passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized tankers, и vehicle carriers.
Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of один country but belong to owners in another.
Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in один country but fly the flag of another.
Армия This category включая the entries dealing with a country's military structure, manpower, и expenditures.
Армия - note This entry включая miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.
Рода войск This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries или the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air, и marine forces).
Армия expenditures This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP).
Армия service age и obligation This entry gives the required ages for voluntary или conscript military service и the length of service obligation.
Money figures All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.
National holiday This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.
Национальность This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun и adjective.
Natural газ - consumption This entry is the total природный газ consumed in кубические метры (куб.м). The discrepancy between the amount of природный газ produced и/или imported и the amount consumed и/или exported is due to the omission of stock changes и other complicating factors.
Natural газ - exports This entry is the total природный газ exported in кубические метры (куб.м).
Natural газ - imports This entry is the total природный газ imported in кубические метры (куб.м).
Natural газ - production This entry is the total природный газ produced in кубические метры (куб.м). The discrepancy between the amount of природный газ produced и/или imported и the amount consumed и/или exported is due to the omission of stock changes и other complicating factors.
Natural газ - proved reserves This entry is the stock of proved reserves of природный газ in кубические метры (куб.м). Proved reserves are those quantities of природный газ, which, by analysis of geological и engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs и under current economic conditions.
Natural hazards This entry lists potential natural disasters.
Natural resources This entry lists a country's mineral, нефть, hydropower, и other resources of commercial importance.
Net migration rate This entry включая the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering и leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause problems such as increasing unemployment и potential ethnic strife (if people are coming in) или a reduction in the labor force, perhaps in certain key sectors (if people are leaving).
Oil - consumption This entry is the total нефть consumed in barrels per day (баррелей в день). The discrepancy between the amount of нефть produced и/или imported и the amount consumed и/или exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, и other complicating factors.
Oil - exports This entry is the total нефть exported in barrels per day (баррелей в день), including both сырая нефть и нефть products.
Oil - imports This entry is the total нефть imported in barrels per day (баррелей в день), including both сырая нефть и нефть products.
Oil - production This entry is the total нефть produced in barrels per day (баррелей в день). The discrepancy between the amount of нефть produced и/или imported и the amount consumed и/или exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, и other complicating factors.
Oil - proved reserves This entry is the stock of proved reserves of сырая нефть in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of нефть which, by analysis of geological и engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs и under current economic conditions.
Люди This category включая the entries dealing with the characteristics of the people и their society.
Люди - note This entry включая miscellaneous demographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
Personal Names - Capitalization The Factbook capitalizes the surname или family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures и naming conventions. The need for capitalization, bold type, underlining, italics, или some other indicator of the individual's surname is apparent in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz, George W. BUSH, и TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah. By knowing the surname, a short form without all capital letters can be used with confidence as in Президент Castro, Chairman Mao, Президент Bush, или Sultan Tunku Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization is extended to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used such as Queen ELIZABETH II. For Vietnamese names, the given name is capitalized because officials are referred to by their given name rather than by their surname. For example, the president Вьетнама is Tran Duc LUONG. His surname is Tran, but he is referred to by his given name - Президент LUONG.
Personal Names - Spelling The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names. At times, however, a foreign leader expressly indicates a preference for, или the media или official documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the transliteration derived from the US Правление standard. In such cases, the Factbook uses the alternative spelling.
Personal Names - Titles The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (или short form of it) immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing alone is not capitalized. Examples: Президент PUTIN и Президент BUSH are chiefs of state. In Россия, the president is chief of state и the premier is the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both chief of state и глава правительства.
Petroleum See entries under Oil.
Petroleum products See entries under Oil.
Протяженность трубопроводов This entry gives the lengths и types of pipelines for transporting products like природный газ, сырая нефть, или нефтяные продукты.
Political parties и leaders This entry включая a listing of significant political organizations и their leaders.
Political pressure groups и leaders This entry включая a listing of a country's political, social, labor, или religious organizations that are involved in politics, или that exert political pressure, but whose leaders do not stand for legislative election. Международные movements или organizations are generally not listed.
Население: This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, или sample surveys pertaining to the recent past и on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents один overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world и within its region. Note: Starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently: The Багамские Острова, Бенин, Ботсвана, Бразилия, Буркина Фасо, Мьянма, Бурунди, Камбоджа, Камерун , Центральноафриканская Республика , Democratic Республика the Congo, Республика the Congo, Кот-д’Ивуар, Эфиопия, Габон, Гана, Гвиана, Гаити, Гондурас, Кения, Лесото, Малави, Мозамбик, Намибия, Нигерия, Руанда, Южно-Африканская Республика, Свазиленд , Танзания, Таиланд, Того, Угадна, Замбия, и Зимбабве .
Население: below poverty line National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
Население: growth rate The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (или deficit) of births over deaths и the balance of migrants entering и leaving a country. The rate may be positive или negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), и jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.
Ports и terminals This entry lists major ports и terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis. In some instances, the number of containers handled или ship visits were also considered.
Public debt This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private и public sector и must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
Radio broadcast stations This entry включая the total number of AM, FM, и коротковолновый диапазон broadcast stations.
Протяженность железных дорог This entry states the total route length of the railway network и of its component parts by коллея: broad, standard, narrow, и dual. Other gauges are listed under note.
Reference maps This section включая world и regional maps.
Refugees и internally displaced persons This entry включая those persons residing in a country as беженцы или internally displaced persons (IDPs). The definition of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality или habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group или political opinion; и is unable или unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, или to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide. The UN Relief и Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a different operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 и who lost both home и means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists some 400,000 Palestinian беженцы not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to беженцы, but who remain within their own national territory и are subject to the laws of that state.
Религии This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group и sometimes включая the percent of total population. The core characteristics и beliefs of the world's major religions are described below.
Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali (known as Baha'u'llah) in Иран in 1852, Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism и believes in один eternal transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice и peace may be achieved on earth. Baha'i revelation contends the prophets of major world religions reflect some truth или element of the divine, believes all were manifestations of God given to specific communities in specific times, и that Baha'u'llah is an additional prophet meant to call all humankind. Bahais are an open community, located worldwide, with the greatest concentration of believers in South Азия.
Buddhism - Religion или philosophy inspired by the 5th century B.C. teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (also known as Gautama Buddha "the enlightened один"). Buddhism focuses on the goal of spiritual enlightenment centered on an understanding of Gautama Buddha's Four Noble Truths on the nature of suffering, и on the Eightfold Path of spiritual и moral practice, to break the cycle of suffering of which we are a part. Buddhism ascribes to a karmic system of rebirth. Several schools и sects of Buddhism exist, differing often on the nature of the Buddha, the extent to which enlightenment can be achieved - for один или for all, и by whom - religious orders или laity.
Basic Groupings
   Theravada Buddhism: The oldest буддисты school, Theravada is practiced mostly in Шри-Ланка, Камбоджа, Лаоc, Мьянма, и Таиланд, with minority representation elsewhere in Азия и the West. Theravadans follow the Pali Canon of Buddha's teachings, и believe that один may escape the cycle of rebirth, worldly attachment, и suffering for oneself; this process may take один или several lifetimes.
   Mahayana Buddhism, including subsets Zen и Tibetan Buddhism: Forms of Mahayana Buddhism are common in East Азия и Tibet, и parts of the West. Mahayanas have additional scriptures beyond the Pali Canon и believe the Buddha is eternal и still teaching. Unlike Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana schools maintain the Buddha-nature is present in all beings и all will ultimately achieve enlightenment.
Christianity - Descending from Judaism, Christianity's central belief maintains Jesus of Nazareth is the promised messiah of the Hebrew Scriptures, и that his life, death, и resurrection are salvific for the world. Christianity is один of the three monotheistic Abrahamic faiths, along with Islam и Judaism, which traces its spiritual lineage to Abraham of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its sacred texts include the Hebrew Bible и the New Testament (или the Christian Gospels).
Basic Groupings
   Catholicism (или Roman Catholicism): This is the oldest established western Christian church и the world's largest single religious body. It is supranational, и recognizes a hierarchical structure with the Pope, или Bishop of Rome, as its head, located at the Vatican. Catholics believe the Pope is the divinely ordered head of the Church from a direct spiritual legacy of Jesus' apostle Peter. Catholicism is comprised of 23 particular Churches, или Rites - один Western (Latin-Rite) и 22 Eastern. The Latin Rite is by far the largest, making up about 98% of Catholic membership. Eastern-Rite Churches, such as the Maronite Church и the Ukrainian Catholic Church, are in communion with Rome although they preserve their own worship traditions и their immediate hierarchy consists of clergy within their own rite. The Catholic Church has a comprehensive theological и moral doctrine specified for believers in its catechism, which makes it unique among most forms of Christianity.
   Mormonism (including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints): Originating in 1830 in the США under Joseph Smith, Mormonism is not characterized as a form of протестанты Christianity because it claims additional revealed Christian scriptures после the Hebrew Bible и New Testament. The Book of мармоны maintains there was an appearance of Jesus in the New Мир following the Christian account of his resurrection, и that the Americas are uniquely blessed continents. Mormonism believes earlier Christian traditions, such as the католики (Римская Католическая церковь), Orthodox, и протестанты reform faiths, are apostasies и that Joseph Smith's revelation of the Book of мармоны is a restoration of true Christianity. Mormons have a hierarchical religious leadership structure, и actively proselytize their faith; they are located primarily in the Americas и in a number of other Western countries.
   Orthodox Christianity: The oldest established eastern form of Christianity, the Holy Orthodox Church, has a ceremonial head in the Bishop of Constantinople (Istanbul), also known as a Patriarch, but its various regional forms (e.g., Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox) are autocephalous (independent of Constantinople's authority, и have their own Patriarchs). Orthodox churches are highly nationalist и ethnic. The Orthodox Christian faith shares many theological tenets with the католики (Римская Католическая церковь) Church, but diverges on some key premises и does not recognize the governing authority of the Pope.
   протестанты Christianity: протестанты Christianity originated in the 16th century as an attempt to reform Roman Catholicism's practices, dogma, и theology. It encompasses several forms или denominations which are extremely varied in structure, beliefs, relationship to state, clergy, и governance. Many protestant theologies emphasize the primary role of scripture in their faith, advocating individual interpretation of Christian texts without the mediation of a final religious authority such as the Roman Pope. The oldest протестанты Christianities include Lutheranism, Calvinism (Presbyterians), и Anglican Christianity (Episcopalians), which have established liturgies, governing structure, и formal clergy. Other variants on протестанты Christianity, including Pentecostal movements и independent churches, may lack один или more of these elements, и their leadership и beliefs are individualized и dynamic.
Hinduism - Originating in the Vedic civilization Индии (second и first millennium B.C.), Hinduism is an extremely diverse set of beliefs и practices with no single founder или religious authority. Hinduism has many scriptures; the Vedas, the Upanishads, и the Bhagavad-Gita are among some of the most important. Hindus may worship один или many deities, usually with prayer rituals within their own home. The most common figures of devotion are the gods Vishnu, Shiva, и a mother goddess, Devi. Most Hindus believe the soul, или atman, is eternal, и goes through a cycle of birth, death, и rebirth (samsara) determined by один's positive или negative karma, или the consequences of один's actions. The goal of religious life is to learn to act so as to finally achieve liberation (moksha) of один's soul, escaping the rebirth cycle.
Islam - The third of the monotheistic Abrahamic faiths, Islam originated with the teachings of Muhammad in the 7th century. Muslims believe Muhammad is the final of all religious prophets (beginning with Abraham) и that the Qu'ran, which is the Islamic scripture, was revealed to him by God. Islam derives from the word submission, и obedience to God is a primary theme in this religion. In order to live an Islamic life, believers must follow the five pillars, или tenets, of Islam, which are the testimony of faith (shahada), daily prayer (salah), giving alms (zakah), fasting during Ramadan (sawm), и the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj).
Basic Groupings
   The two primary branches of Islam are Sunni и Shia, which split from each other over a religio-political leadership dispute about the rightful successor to Muhammad. The Shia believe Muhammad's cousin и son-in-law, Ali, was the only divinely ordained Imam (religious leader), while the Sunni maintain the first three caliphs после Muhammad were also legitimate authorities. In modern Islam, Sunnis и Shia continue to have different views of acceptable schools of Islamic jurisprudence, и who is a proper Islamic religious authority. Islam also has an active mystical branch, Sufism, with various Sunni и Shia subsets.
    Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's мусульмане population. It recognizes the Abu Bakr as the first caliph после Muhammad. Sunni has four schools of Islamic doctrine и law - Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, и Hanbali - which uniquely interpret the Hadith, или recorded oral traditions of Muhammad. A Sunni мусульмане may elect to follow any один of these schools, as all are considered equally valid.
    Shia Islam represents 10-20% of Muslims worldwide, и its distinguishing feature is its reverence for Ali as an infallible, divinely inspired leader, и as the first Imam of the мусульмане community после Muhammad. A majority of Shia are known as "Twelvers," because they believe that the 11 familial successor imams после Muhammad culminate in a 12th Imam (al-Mahdi) who is hidden in the world и will reappear at its end to redeem the righteous.
   Ismaili faith: A sect of Shia Islam, its adherents are also known as "Seveners," because they believe that the rightful seventh Imam in Islamic leadership was Isma'il, the elder son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq. Ismaili tradition awaits the return of the seventh Imam as the Mahdi, или Islamic messianic figure. Ismailis are located in various parts of the world, particularly South Азия и the Levant.
   Alawi faith: Another Shia sect of Islam, the name reflects followers' devotion to the religious authority of Ali. Alawites are a closed, secretive religious group who assert they are Shia Muslims, although outside scholars speculate their beliefs may have a syncretic mix with other faiths originating in the Middle East. Alawis live mostly in Сирия, Ливан, и Турция.
   Druze faith: A highly secretive tradition и a closed community that derives from the Ismaili sect of Islam; its core beliefs are thought to emphasize a combination of Gnostic principles believing that the Fatimid caliph, al-Hakin, is the один who embodies the key aspects of goodness of the universe, which are, the intellect, the word, the soul, the preceder, и the follower. The Druze have a key presence in Сирия, Ливан, и Израиль.
Jainism - Originating in Индия, Jain spiritual philosophy believes in an eternal human soul, the eternal universe, и a principle of "the own nature of things." It emphasizes compassion for all living things, seeks liberation of the human soul from reincarnation through enlightenment, и values personal responsibility due to the belief in the immediate consequences of один's behavior. Jain philosophy teaches non-violence и prescribes vegetarianism for monks и laity alike; its adherents are a highly influential religious minority in Indian society.
Judaism - One of the first known monotheistic religions, likely dating to between 2000-1500 B.C., Judaism is the native faith of the иудаисты people, based upon the belief in a covenant of responsibility between a sole omnipotent creator God и Abraham, the patriarch of Judaism's Hebrew Bible, или Tanakh. Divine revelation of principles и prohibitions in the Hebrew Scriptures form the basis of иудаисты law, или halakhah, which is a key component of the faith. While there are extensive traditions of иудаисты halakhic и theological discourse, there is no final dogmatic authority in the tradition. Local communities have their own religious leadership. Modern Judaism has three basic categories of faith: Orthodox, Conservative, и Reform/Liberal. These differ in their views и observance of иудаисты law, with the Orthodox representing the most traditional practice, и Reform/Liberal communities the most accommodating of individualized interpretations of иудаисты identity и faith.
Shintoism - A native animist tradition Японии, Shinto practice is based upon the premise that every being и object has its own spirit или kami. Shinto practitioners worship several particular kamis, including the kamis of nature, и families often have shrines to their ancestors' kamis. Shintoism has no fixed tradition of prayers или prescribed dogma, but is characterized by individual ritual. Respect for the kamis in nature is a key Shinto value. Prior to the end Мира War II, Shinto was the state religion Японии, и bolstered the cult of the Japanese emperor.
Sikhism - Founded by the Guru Nanak (born 1469), Sikhism believes in a non-anthropomorphic, supreme, eternal, creator God; centering один's devotion to God is seen as a means of escaping the cycle of rebirth. Sikhs follow the teachings of Nanak и nine subsequent gurus. Their scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib - also known as the Adi Granth - is considered the living Guru, или final authority of Sikh faith и theology. Sikhism emphasizes equality of humankind и disavows caste, class, или gender discrimination.
Taoism - Chinese philosophy или religion based upon Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching, which centers on belief in the Tao, или the way, as the flow of the universe и the nature of things. Taoism encourages a principle of non-force, или wu-wei, as the means to live harmoniously with the Tao. Taoists believe the esoteric world is made up of a perfect harmonious balance и nature, while in the manifest world - particularly in the body - balance is distorted. The Three Jewels of the Tao - compassion, simplicity, и humility - serve as the basis for Taoist ethics.
Zoroastrianism - Originating from the teachings of Zoroaster in about the 9th или 10th century B.C., Zoroastrianism may be the oldest continuing creedal religion. Its key beliefs center on a transcendent creator God, Ahura Mazda, и the concept of free will. The key ethical tenets of Zoroastrianism expressed in its scripture, the Avesta, are based on a dualistic worldview where один may prevent chaos if один chooses to serve God и exercises good thoughts, good words, и good deeds. Zoroastrianism is generally a closed religion и members are almost always born to Zoroastrian parents. Prior to the spread of Islam, Zoroastrianism dominated greater Иран. Today, though a minority, Zoroastrians remain primarily in Иран, Индия, и Пакистан.
Reserves of foreign exchange и золото This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category включая not only foreign currency и золото, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the Международные Monetary Fund, и its reserve position in the Fund.
Roadways This entry gives the total length of the road network и включая the length of the paved и unpaved portions.
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary) School life expectancy (SLE) is the total number of лет of schooling (primary to tertiary) that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his или her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age. Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year или grade completed in один country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content или quality as a year или grade completed in another country. SLE represents the expected number of лет of schooling that will be completed, including лет spent repeating один или more grades.
Sex ratio This entry включая the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, до 15 лет, 15-64 лет, 65 лет и over, и for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some азиаты countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion и infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns и fertility patterns. Eventually, it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners.
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home This entry gives the cumulative доллар США value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
Suffrage This entry gives the age at enfranchisement и whether the right to vote is universal или restricted.
Telephone numbers All telephone numbers in The Мир Factbook consist of the код страны in brackets, the city или area code (where required) in parentheses, и the local number. The один component that is not presented is the international access code, which varies from country to country. For example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US to Madrid, Испания, would be as follows: 011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx, where 011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls; 01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls, [34] is the код страны for Испания, (1) is the city code for Madrid, 577 is the local exchange, и xxxx is the local telephone number. An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country to the US would be as follows: international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where [ 1] is the код страны for the US, (202) is the area code for Washington, DC, 939 is the local exchange, и xxxx is the local telephone number.
Telephone system This entry включая a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic и international components. The following terms и abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
Arabsat - Arab Satellite Связь Organization (Riyadh, Саудовская Аравия).
Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).
CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.
Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency и sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange.
Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America и Мексика with each other.
Coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by и insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies.
Comsat - Связь Satellite Corporation (US).
DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network или Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Связь System (US Department of Defense).
Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).
Fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.
GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982.
HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range.
Inmarsat - Международные Maritime Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, и safety applications at sea, in the air, и on land.
Intelsat - Международные Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC).
Intersputnik - Международные Organization of Space Связь (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union и the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in Северная Америка, Africa, и East Азия.
Landline - communication wire или cable of any sort that is installed on poles или buried in the ground.
Marecs - Maritime European Связь Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.
Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system.
Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the Международные Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern телекоммуникации network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Алжир, Джибути, Египет, Иордания, Либия, Мороккo, Саудовская Аравия, Сомали, Судан, Сирия, Тунис, и Емен; it was initially started in Мороккo in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) и was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network.
Microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls и television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received и sent on from один booster station to another on an optical path.
NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national телекоммуникации authorities of the Nordic countries (Дания, Финляндия, Исландия, Норвегия, и Швеция).
Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network.
Radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission и reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets.
PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).
SAFE - South African Far East Cable
Satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two или more earth stations и at least один satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, и television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.
Satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting и receiving antenna и required receiving и transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.
Satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite и an earth station permitting communication between them, either один-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) или two-way (telephone channels).
SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range.
Shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band и are used for communication over long distances.
Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Мексика's system of international телекоммуникации in the Western Hemisphere.
Statsionar - Россия's geostationary system for satellite телекоммуникации.
Submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.
TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with Северная Америка.
Telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network или the international Datel network.
Telegraph - a телекоммуникации system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission.
Telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges.
Tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter и reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit и receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 мили in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances.
Trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines.
UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range.
VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz range.
Telephones - main lines in use This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.
Telephones - mobile cellular This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers.
Television broadcast stations This entry gives the total number of separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.
Terminology Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word Страна in the Страна name entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, и other entities in addition to the traditional countries или independent states. Армия is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense, security, и defense activities in many entries. The Independence entry включая the usual colonial independence dates и former ruling states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the traditional founding date или the date of unification, федерация, confederation, establishment, или state succession that are not strictly independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency status noted in this same entry.
Terrain This entry contains a brief description of the topography.
Time Difference This entry is expressed in The Мир Factbook in two ways. First, it is stated as the difference in hours between the capital of an entity и Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) от стандартного времени. Additionally, the difference in time between the capital of an entity и that observed in Washington, D.C. is also provided. Note that the time difference assumes both locations are simultaneously observing Standard Time или Daylight Saving Time.
Time zones Ten countries (Австралия, Бразилия, Канада, Индонeзия, Казахстан, Мексика, Новая Зеландия, Россия, Испания, и the США) и the island Гренландии observe more than один official time depending on the number of designated time zones within their boundaries. An illustration of time zones throughout the world и within countries can be seen in the Standard Time Zones of the Мир map included in the Сылки на карты section of The Мир Factbook.
Total fertility rate This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing лет и bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replacement rate for a population, resulting in relative stability in terms of total numbers. Rates above two children indicate populations growing in size и whose median age is declining. Higher rates may also indicate difficulties for families, in some situations, to feed и educate their children и for women to enter the labor force. Rates below two children indicate populations decreasing in size и growing older. Global fertility rates are in general decline и this trend is most pronounced in industrialized countries, especially Western Europe, where populations are projected to decline dramatically over the next 50 лет.
Total renewable water resources This entry provides the long-term average water availability for a country in кубические километры of precipitation, recharged ground water, и surface inflows from surrounding countries. The values have been adjusted to account for overlap resulting from surface flow recharge of groundwater sources. Total renewable water resources provides the water total available to a country but does not include water resource totals that have been reserved for upstream или downstream countries through international agreements. Note that these values are averages и do not accurately reflect the total available in any given year. Annual available resources can vary greatly due to short-term и long-term climatic и weather variations.
Trafficking in persons Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded, или coerced into labor или sexual exploitation. The Международные Labor Organization (ILO), the UN agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, и social protection issues, estimates that 12.3 миллионов people worldwide are enslaved in forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, и involuntary servitude at any given time. Human trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat, depriving people of their human rights и freedoms, risking global health, promoting social breakdown, inhibiting development by depriving countries of their human capital, и helping fuel the growth of organized crime. In 2000, the US Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), reauthorized in 2003 и 2005, which provides tools for the US to combat trafficking in persons, both domestically и abroad. One of the law's key components is the creation of the US Department of State's annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which assesses the government response (i.e., the current situation) in some 150 countries with a significant number of victims trafficked across their borders who are recruited, harbored, transported, provided, или obtained for forced labor или sexual exploitation. Countries in the annual report are rated in three tiers, based on government efforts to combat trafficking. The countries identified in this entry are those listed in the 2007 Trafficking in Persons Report as Tier 2 Watch List или Tier 3 based on the following tier rating definitions:
Tier 2 Watch List countries do not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but are making significant efforts to do so, и meet один of the following criteria:
1. they display a high или significantly increasing numbof victims,
2. they have failed to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons, или,
3. they have committed to take action over the next year.
Tier 3 countries neither satisfy the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking nor demonstrate a significant effort to do so. Countries in this tier are subject to potential non-humanitarian и non-trade sanctions.
Transnational issues This category включая four entries - Disputes - international, Refugees и internally displaced persons, Trafficking in persons, и Транзит наркотиков - that deal with current issues going beyond national boundaries.
Транспортное сообщение This category включая the entries dealing with the means for movement of people и goods.
Транспортное сообщение - note This entry включая miscellaneous транспорт information of significance not included elsewhere.
UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) See entry for Coordinated Universal Time.
Unemployment rate This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
Протяженность внутренних водных путей This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, и other inland bodies of water.
Единицы измерений This information is presented in Приложения G: Единицы измерений и включая mathematical notations (mathematical powers и names), metric interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length, weight, или capacity; area; volume), и standard conversion factors.
Years All year references are for the календарный год (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). The календарный год is an accounting period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.
Note: Information for the US и US dependencies was compiled from material in the public domain и does not represent Intelligence Community estimates.

This page was last updated on 4 September 2008

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